In the past decade, optical metasurfaces have become increasingly popular tools for bending, focusing, and otherwise transforming light. They precisely control light–matter interactions with subwavelength structures. The planar surfaces comprise metallic or dielectric optical resonators that manipulate electromagnetic waves in specialized and novel ways.1,2 The idea of pairing light scattering with planar optical structures isn’t new: For more than 50 years, researchers have designed diffractive optical elements that serve as beam shapers, beamsplitters, and diffusers.3 But metasurfaces are more efficient and adaptable than diffractive components and can provide flexible control of light–matter interactions.

Conventional optical components guide electromagnetic wavefronts as light propagates in a bulk medium along optical paths of different lengths. Metasurfaces, on the other hand, control the phase, amplitude, and polarization of light waves within a distance much less than the wavelength.2,4 The resulting optical elements and devices are effectively two-dimensional,...

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