Meteorites and other hunks of space rock have been colliding with the Earth and Moon for their entire history. Counting impact craters on both bodies provides some estimate of the flux of material bombarding the inner solar system. And if it can be measured, a meteorite’s composition yields information about the geological processes that were responsible for its formation.

Discoveries of meteorites on Earth, though, are rare. Many burn up in the atmosphere before reaching Earth’s surface. For the ones that do make it to the ground, flowing water or other erosive processes often break them down. Slower-moving plate-tectonic activities also hide evidence of impacts.

The cold, dry Antarctic desert offers conditions more favorable for the preservation of meteorites, and, consequently, more are found there than anywhere else on Earth. But the Moon is an even better hunting ground for finding meteorites because of its lack of atmosphere, limited erosion,...

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