Jonathan Fanton is worried. “Policymakers and the public need reliable, independent advice from scientists in making choices that shape relations among nations and enhance the prospects for peace and security,” says Fanton, president of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, which is based in Chicago. “A generation of scientists—and their students—drawn into public policy by the Manhattan Project and the cold war is passing from service … and we need a successor generation.” Next month, at an American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) workshop on science and technology policy in Washington, DC, Fanton will announce the winners of a new $7 million-a-year program designed to increase the pool of independent experts on science, technology, and security policy.

Under the MacArthur Foundation’s science, technology, and security initiative (STSI), nine US universities will receive three years of funding to create a series of appointments, including five tenured posts....

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