The experimental observation of Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) in rubidium in 1995 demonstrated that a macroscopic number of bosons could be produced in a single quantum state of trapped atoms. The occupation of a single quantum state by a large number of identical bosons is the matter‐wave analog of the storage of photons in a single mode of a laser cavity. In a conventional laser, one extracts a coherent beam of photons from a cavity by using a partially transmitting mirror as an output coupler. In 1997, Wolfgang Ketterle and his collaborators at MIT built a pulsed output coupler that extracted matter waves from a condensate, and they observed interference between atoms from two separate condensates, thereby demonstrating an atom laser for the first time (see PHYSICS TODAY, March 1997, page 17).
New Atom Lasers Eject Atoms or Run CW
Gloria B. Lubkin; New Atom Lasers Eject Atoms or Run CW. Physics Today 1 April 1999; 52 (4): 17–18. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.882646
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