Juan Maldacena made clear the duality between two very different types of theories by formulating them both in terms of strange topological structures Known as D‐branes. D‐branes are a subset of a larger class of objects known as p‐branes (p is the object's spatial dimension), which are distortions of spacetime geometry, rather like dislocations in a crystal. If p = 2, the p‐brane is an ordinary two‐dimensional sheet, or membrane; if p = 1, it's a string and if p = 0, a point particle.

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