Nuclei interact with the external environment through a number of different fields—electromagnetic, weak and hadronic. The collective excitations induced by these interactions are known as giant resonances. The best‐known example is the giant dipole resonance, which is stimulated when the electric field of an incident gamma ray exerts a force on the positively charged protons in a nucleus, moving them relative to the uncharged neutrons (see figures 1 and 2). Other giant resonances that have been studied are the monopole, quadrupole and spin‐isospin modes of oscillation. The spin‐isospin mode involves charge‐changing processes, in particular beta decay. The quadrupole and monopole giant resonances are most easily seen with fields that act equally on neutrons and protons, because in these modes the neutrons and protons oscillate in the same mode.
Giant Resonances in Hot Nuclei
George F. Bertsch, Ricardo A. Broglia; Giant Resonances in Hot Nuclei. Physics Today 1 August 1986; 39 (8): 44–52. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.881038
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