In the last 15 years there has been a tremendous growth in the field of surface science, all largely made possible by the development and application of various surface spectroscopies. In this article we hope to provide a picture of a few of the principal surface spectroscopic methods and how they are applied to answer important questions in surface science. In particular, we hope to provide the reader with a perspective of the unique considerations and technical problems associated with applying spectroscopic methods to surfaces. While the particular examples we discuss are the results of colleagues and coworkers at the Thomas J. Watson IBM laboratories, we believe they are representative of the types of surface studies and spectroscopies performed in the field in general.
Joe Demuth, Phaedon Avouris; Surface spectroscopy. Physics Today 1 November 1983; 36 (11): 62–68. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2915362
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