We owe the concept of “thermodynamic temperature” to Sadi Carnot, William Thomson and Rudolf Clausius. This very basic property is measured in the Systeme Internationale of units by the kelvin, defined in terms of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. In principle, any other temperature may be determined by its ratio to this defined temperature. In practice, however, it is almost always more convenient to measure an approximation of the thermodynamic temperature by using one of the familiar thermometers (platinum resistance, thermocouple, radiation pyrometer, and so on).
The measurment of thermodynamic temperature
Leslie A. Guildner; The measurment of thermodynamic temperature. Physics Today 1 December 1982; 35 (12): 24–31. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2914880
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