Over the past several years a theory of the strong interactions known as quantum chromodynamics has been developing. This theory assumes the existence of fractionally charged quarks of spin 1/2 and that the force between the quarks is carried by a gluon, a massless spin‐1 quantum. Like the quark, it is widely believed that the gluon is not directly observable.
Gloria B. Lubkin; Evidence from PETRA adds support for QCD and gluons. Physics Today 1 February 1980; 33 (2): 17–19. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2913931
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