The People's Republic of China, established by Mao Zedong in 1949, is the world's largest nation—900 million people—in an economy that is mainly agricultural and in which 80% of the people work on farms. It is a country of ancient tradition and enviable self‐sufficiency that is reluctantly entering its industrial revolution. It is a country that US physicists and astronomers should attempt to understand as they establish channels of communications with the scientists of that country.

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