All those who wear Polaroid sunglasses are familiar with the polarization of light by reflection, a phenomenon first investigated by Etienne Malus in 1808 when he looked through a calcite crystal at the light reflected from the windows of the Palais Luxembourg. In 1921 Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach demonstrated the spin polarization of atomic beams in magnetic field gradients, and their methods are now in fairly widespread use.
Physics with polarized nuclei
William J. Thompson, Thomas B. Clegg; Physics with polarized nuclei. Physics Today 1 February 1979; 32 (2): 32–39. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2995407
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