Like so many other physicists, I emerged into the postwar climate of our country in the fall of 1945, having spent nearly six years on work that bordered more nearly on applied than pure science. The first part of the war had been devoted to ordnance and ballistics, the intermediate part to the development of radar components, such as diodes and oscilloscope screens, and the last part to the Plutonium Project at Chicago—all climaxed by a number of months as one of the scientific intelligence officers in SHAEF. With my colleagues at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, plans were laid for research in the coming period. We hoped that we could find the funds to match our dreams even modestly.

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