Femtosecond lasers, for their ultrashort pulse width and ultrahigh peak fluence, have been proved to be powerful tools for the fabrication of 3-dimensional micro-/nanostructures in kinds of optically transparent materials. Basically, five kinds of micro-/nanostructures or modifications including color centers, refractive index change, nanogratings, microvoids, and microcracks can be obtained with varied laser fluences and pulse width. Here, we will demonstrate some new results regarding the fabrication of functional devices inside transparent materials based on the above-mentioned five kinds of micro-/nanostructures or modifications. The potential applications of the fabricated micro-/nanostructures and devices are introduced as well.

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