The development of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has led to a wide variety of new ophthalmic diagnostic instruments. Also, with the development of reliable, cost-effective ultra-short laser systems, a number of new laser assisted ophthalmic surgical techniques have evolved. The surgical systems are used in refractive surgery and cataract surgery. ISO Standard 15004-2 on ophthalmic instrument safety requires the assurance of safe exposure of non-target tissues, although, of course, the irradiance of target tissues will generally exceed exposure limits. Examples of specific studies related to limiting exposure to the cornea, lens and retina will be provided.

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