The laser has been used diagnostically and therapeutically in many clinical disciplines. Until recently, cardiac surgery has found little advantage for the use of light energy compared to conventional techniques. Early studies, however, show promise in utilizing the laser as an instrument for increased precision of tissue ablation and for access to areas percutaneously that were previously approached through the open chest.
Laser applications in cardiac surgery
David J. Dries, Marc E. Pollock, John Eugene; October 14–18, 2018. "Laser applications in cardiac surgery." Proceedings of the International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics. ICALEO® ‘86: Proceedings of the Flow & Particles Diagnostics Conference. Orlando, FL, USA. (pp. pp. 73-78). ASME. https://doi.org/10.2351/1.5057784
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