Surface textured materials can exhibit enhanced properties due to their unique morphology, large surface area, and modified surface properties. The laser etching process has garnered significant attention for its capability to create textures on sample surfaces, resulting in a substantial improvement of surface properties. In this study, we investigate the application of femtosecond laser etching on solid electrolytes. To achieve this, an axicon lens is employed to transform the conventional Gaussian beam into a Bessel beam, with an extended focal depth that facilitates the laser etching process. A telescope laser system with a Bessel beam having a focal length of 2 mm is constructed based on finite element analysis. Glassy LAGP [Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3] with a thickness of 2 mm is successfully etched simultaneously on both surfaces using this approach. Utilization of femtosecond laser pulses effectively prevents sample melting during the process. As predicted by finite element analysis, wider ditches are observed on the surface compared to those on the backside due to higher laser intensity at the surface region. By modifying the parameters of the telescope laser system, size and depth control can be achieved for these ditches.

1.
J.
Han
,
F.
Zhang
,
B. V.
Meerbeek
,
J.
Vleugels
,
A.
Braem
, and
S.
Castagne
, “
Laser surface texturing of zirconia-based ceramics for dental applications: A review
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng., C
123
,
112034
(
2021
).
2.
M.
Vishnoi
,
P.
Kumar
, and
Q.
Murtaza
, “
Surface texturing techniques to enhance tribological performance: A review
,”
Surf. Interfaces
27
,
101463
(
2021
).
3.
M.
Kotobuki
, “
Properties of Al2O3 pastes using inorganic Na2SiO3 binder and organic binder for direct ink writing
,”
Phys. Status Solidi B
259
,
2100520
(
2022
).
4.
P.
Pawlus
,
W.
Koszela
, and
R.
Reizer
, “
Surface texturing of cylinder liners: A review
,”
Materials
15
,
8629
(
2022
).
5.
P.
Kondaiah
and
R.
Pitchumani
, “
Fractal textured surfaces for high temperature corrosion mitigation in molten salts
,”
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
230
,
111281
(
2021
).
6.
Z.
Kovács
,
Z. J.
Viharos
, and
J.
Kodácsy
, “
The effects of machining strategies of magnetic assisted roller burnishing on the resulted surface structure
,”
IOP Conf. Series
448
,
012002
(
2018
).
7.
J.
Schille
,
J. R.
Chirinos
,
X.
Mao
,
L.
Schneider
,
M.
Horn
,
U.
Loeschner
, and
V.
Zorba
, “
Formation of nano- and micro-scale surface features induced by long-range femtosecond filament laser ablation
,”
Nanomaterials
12
,
2493
(
2022
).
8.
Y.
Wang
and
P.
Zhao
, “
Temperature-based analysis of droplet cooling and freezing on femtosecond laser textured surfaces
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
206
,
118046
(
2022
).
9.
K.
Du
,
X.
Li
,
B.
Yang
,
C.
Zhang
, and
B.
Xia
, “
Research progress of femtosecond laser microhole drilling on non-metallic materials
,”
Laser Optoelectron. Prog.
57
,
111417
(
2020
).
10.
R.
Stoian
,
M.
Boyle
,
A.
Thoss
,
A.
Rosenfeld
,
G.
Korn
,
I. V.
Hertel
, and
E. E. B.
Campbell
, “
Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
80
,
353
355
(
2002
).
11.
J.
Durnin
,
J. J.
Miceli
, and
J. H.
Eberly
, “
Diffraction-free beams
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
58
,
1499
1501
(
1987
).
12.
Xing
Songling
,
Liu
Lei
,
Zou
Guisheng
,
Z.
Xueqian
,
B.
Hailin
, and
Y. N.
Zhou
, “
Effects of femtosecond laser parameters on hole drilling of silica glass
,”
Chin. J. Lasers
42
,
0403001
(
2015
).
13.
S.
Liu
,
Y.-F.
Li
,
X.-Y.
Cai
, and
N.
Zhan
, “
“Double-core optical waveguides fabricated by astigmatic femtosecond Bessel beam in silica glass
,”
Acta Phys. Sin.
65
,
194210
(
2016
).
14.
S.
Butkus
,
E.
Gaižauskas
,
L.
Mačernytė
,
V.
Jukna
,
D.
Paipulas
, and
V.
Sirutkaitis
, “
Femtosecond beam transformation effects in water, enabling increased throughput micromachining in transparent materials
,”
J. Appl. Sci.
9
,
2405
(
2019
).
15.
S.
Butkus
,
D.
Paipulas
,
R.
Sirutkaitis
,
E.
Gaizauskas
, and
V.
Sirutkaitis
, “
Rapid cutting and drilling of transparent materials via femtosecond laser filamentation
,”
J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.
9
,
213
220
(
2014
).
16.
Y.
Tan
,
W.
Chu
,
P.
Wang
,
W.
Li
,
Z.
Wang
, and
Y.
Cheng
, “
Water-assisted laser drilling of high-aspect-ratio 3D microchannels in glass with spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses
,”
Opt. Mater. Express
9
,
1971
1978
(
2019
).
17.
E.
Bulushev
,
V.
Bessmeltsev
,
A.
Dostovalov
,
N.
Goloshevsky
, and
A.
Wolf
, “
High-speed and crack-free direct-writing of microchannels on glass by an IR femtosecond laser
,”
Opt. Lasers Eng.
79
,
39
47
(
2016
).
18.
H.
Varel
,
D.
Ashkenasi
,
A.
Rosenfeld
,
M.
Wähmer
, and
E. E. B.
Campbell
, “
Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses
,”
Appl. Phys. A
65
,
367
373
(
1997
).
19.
R. W.
Boyd
,
Nonlinear Optics
(
Elsevier B.V.
,
2003
).
20.
T.
Wulz
,
B. K.
Canfield
,
L. M.
Davis
,
S.
Spanier
, and
E.
Lukosi
, “
Pulsed femtosecond-laser machining and deep reactive ion etching of diamond
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
74
,
108
113
(
2017
).
21.
M.
Kotobuki
, “
Recent progress of ceramic electrolytes for post Li and Na batteries
,”
Funct. Mater. Lett.
14
,
2130003
(
2021
).
22.
S.
Mitra
,
M.
Chanal
,
R.
Clady
,
A.
Mouskeftaras
, and
D.
Grojo
, “
Millijoule femtosecond micro-Bessel beams for ultra-high aspect ratio machining
,”
Appl. Opt.
54
,
7358
7365
(
2015
).
23.
P.
Wu
,
C.
Sui
, and
W.
Huang
, “
Theoretical analysis of a quasi-Bessel beam for laser ablation
,”
Photonics Res.
2
,
82
86
(
2014
).
24.
G.
Zhang
,
G.
Cheng
,
M.
Bhuyan
,
C.
D’Amico
, and
R.
Stoian
, “
Efficient point-by-point Bragg gratings fabricated in embedded laser-written silica waveguides using ultrafast Bessel beams
,”
Opt. Lett.
43
,
2161
2164
(
2018
).
25.
J.
Arlt
,
K.
Dholakia
,
L.
Allen
, and
M. J.
Padgett
, “
Efficiency of second-harmonic generation with Bessel beams
,”
Phys. Rev. A
60
,
2438
2441
(
1999
).
26.
Oto
Brzobohatý
,
Tomáš
Cižmár
, and
Pavel
Zemánek
, “
High quality quasi-Bessel beam generated by round-tip axicon
,”
Opt. Express
16
,
12688
(
2008
).
27.
B.
Yan
,
L.
Kang
,
M.
Kotobuki
,
L.
He
,
B.
Liu
, and
K.
Jiang
, “
Boron group element doping of Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 based on microwave sintering
,”
J. Solid State Electrochem.
25
,
527
534
(
2021
).
28.
M.
Kotobuki
,
H.
Lei
,
Y.
Chen
,
S.
Song
,
C.
Xu
,
N.
Hu
,
J.
Molenda
, and
L.
Lu
, “
Preparation of thin solid electrolyte by hot-pressing and diamond wire slicing
,”
RSC Adv.
9
,
11670
11675
(
2019
).
You do not currently have access to this content.