International Journal of Fluid Engineering (IJFE) is an open access journal. Articles published in IJFE are freely accessible, without restriction, to the global public. Although IJFE is an open access journal, authors are not responsible for any publication charges. Authors who publish in IJFE retain the copyright to their work under a Creative Commons license. Under this license, users are free to share and adapt the material in any format, provided appropriate credit is given. Visit the AIP Publishing Open Access Policy for more information about our policies on open access.