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Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Methods
Published: November 2022
10.1063/9780735422575_001
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2257-5
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2254-4
...Any attempted theoretical description of atom–laser dynamics is built on a number of assumptions that are guided either by the need to obtain a computationally tractable problem or by the pertaining experimental conditions. The atom or molecule is considered as being isolated and distorted only...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Methods
Published: November 2022
10.1063/9780735422575_005
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2257-5
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2254-4
... ) with ω = ck. For our purposes of intense laser fields, some convenient approximations can be made here. First, we adopt the quasi-monochromatic approximation, fully consistent with the available laboratory pulses, where the field is propagating with a wavevector peaked around a central...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: AIPP Books, Methods
Published: November 2022
10.1063/9780735422575
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2257-5
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2254-4
Images
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Professional
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425477_007
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2547-7
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2544-6
..., and the comparison of successive relative displacements in part 2. (Such inconsistent responses would include, for example, answering either “speeding up” or “slowing down” in part 1, but answering “equal to 30 m” in part 2.) It would seem that most students on the laser ranging device question did not apply...
Images
Paper-based piezoresistive force sensor. (a) Schematic diagram of a paper-b...
Published: March 2023
FIG. 3.9 Paper-based piezoresistive force sensor. (a) Schematic diagram of a paper-based force sensor using a carbon resistor (shown in black) as the sensing component, contact pads shown in silver ink (shown in blue) with perforation of fold lines made by a laser cutter; (b) folded sensor; and (c) force–deflection curve of unfolded and folded cantilever. Reprinted with permission from Liu et al., Lab Chip 11 (13), 2189 (2011). Copyright 2011 Royal Society of Chemistry. More about this image found in Paper-based piezoresistive force sensor. (a) Schematic diagram of a paper-b...
Images
(a) Optomechanical crystal tightly confined mechanical and optical resonanc...
Published: March 2023
FIG. 7.25 (a) Optomechanical crystal tightly confined mechanical and optical resonances at the same physical location. This is achieved using photonic crystals to confine light and acoustic bandgap structure to confine mechanical vibrations ( Meenehan et al., 2014 ). (b) Basic setup of optical tweezer ( Ashkin et al., 1986 ) incoming spatially filtered laser beam focused using a microscope on a particle in a liquid. The focused beam undergoes reflections R1 and R2 and refraction by the sphere, resulting in a net upward force FA on the particle. More about this image found in (a) Optomechanical crystal tightly confined mechanical and optical resonanc...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
0
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9
... screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures laser structures ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 2002 – 2004 ( 1999 ). 10.1063/1.123727 Dora , Y. , Chakraborty , A. , McCarthy , L. , Keller , S. , Denbaars , S. P. , and Mishra , U. K. , “ High breakdown...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
0
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2439-5
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2436-4
.../1.3673854 Carlson , R. O. , Slack , G. A. , and Silverman , S. J. , “ Thermal conductivity of GaAs and GaAs1−xPx laser semiconductors ,” J. Appl. Phys.   36 ( 2 ), 505 – 507 ( 1965 ). 10.1063/1.1714018 Chae , J. , An , S. , Ramer , G...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735424395_007
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2439-5
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2436-4
...., 2010 ; Liu et al., 2019a ; and Sattari et al., 2020 ) Applications MUX/DEMUX ( Veerasubramanian et al. 2012) Optical add/drop Lasers ( Wang, 1974 ; and Ujager et al., 2010 ) Tunable filters ( Cremer et al., 1989 ), Filters ( Park et al...
Images
(a) Vertical pendulum tilt sensor ( Dong <em>et al.,</em> 2005 ) wi...
Published: March 2023
FIG. 7.19 (a) Vertical pendulum tilt sensor ( Dong et al., 2005 ) with three fiber Bragg gratings attached to three cantilevers. A tilt of the pendulum leads to bending of the cantilevers depending on the direction of the tilt. This leads the attached fiber Bragg grating to strain and change its reflection spectrum. (b) Schematic of a MEMS ring laser gyroscope with movable mirrors and lens. ( Hashimoto et al., 2009 ). (c) Schematic of a passive resonant optical gyroscope using a fiber ring. The phase modulators are driven by antiphase triangular waves to reduce parasitic effects and allow the readout of Sagnac phase shift as amplitude at photodetector ( Jin et al., 2007 ). More about this image found in (a) Vertical pendulum tilt sensor ( Dong et al., 2005 ) wi...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Professional
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425514_001
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2551-4
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2548-4
... sensitivities. In this article, Truncale and Graham describe an electro-optical eardrum that measures vibrations of a synthetic eardrum membrane via a laser. This allows students to engage in the activity without requiring the use of hearing. After applying the exclusion criteria, 66 sources remained...
Images
(a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the porous AAO cantilevers...
Published: March 2023
FIG. 8.2 (a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the porous AAO cantilevers used for moisture sensing at different magnifications: (i) AAO cantilevers with a layer of gold coating of 30-nm thickness, (ii) enlarged SEM image of (i) reprinted with permission from Lee et al., Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137 (2), 561–565 (2009). Copyright 2009 Elsevier. (b) Fabrication of high surface area carbon nanotube (CNT)/carbon composite MC and measurement procedure comprises of (i) photolithographic patterning of a 4-nm iron (Fe) catalyst film, (ii) vertical growth of CNT forest from Fe catalyst, (iii) infiltration of the CNT forest and subsequent release from the substrate, and (iv) mounting of the fabricated device between a clamp and a piezoelectric element. Optical deflection measurement is then carried out using laser reflection (with permission to use under creative common license ( Noyce et al., 2019 ) published by the royal society of chemistry. More about this image found in (a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the porous AAO cantilevers...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735424395
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2439-5
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2436-4
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Professional
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425477_016
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2547-7
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2544-6
... of Kepler's second law (left) and a Feynman diagram representing electron–positron interaction (right). FIG. 16.5 Photograph of the Black Hole in Galaxy Messier 87 ( https://eventhorizontelescope.org/ ). FIG. 16.6 Video illustrating the use of external cavity diode lasers in atomic physics (from Hardman...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425590_003
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9
... the preferred choice of substrate for III-nitride LEDs due to its low cost. However, low thermal conductivity makes it unsuitable for high-power lasers or high breakdown transistors, such as high electron mobility transistors (HEMT), where the device operation generates a substantial amount of heat. Besides...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735424395_003
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2439-5
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2436-4
... and Lechuga, Analyst 135 , 827–836 ( 2010 ). Copyright 2010 Royal Society of Chemistry. Types of detection methods Optical methods Currently, there are various types of optical methods; the most common among them is optical beam based deflection technique. The laser light focused on the tip...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425590_010
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9
... (the magnetic phase is mostly electronically conducting) and greater freedom and flexibility in the fabrication. 2-2 type ME composites are deposited by different techniques such as pulsed laser deposition, chemical vapor deposition, sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, spin coating, spray pyrolysis, and spin...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Professional
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425477_020
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2547-7
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2544-6
... physics, Christensen et al. examined students' conceptual understanding related to the interaction of light with matter in a unit that included microscopy, laser eye surgery, and pulse oximetry, and which involved students in tasks using actual medical devices ( Christensen et al., 2013...