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Schematic diagram of the behavior of dopants or <span class="search-highlight">impurities</span> that act as (a) ...
Published: February 2023
FIG. 6.1 Schematic diagram of the behavior of dopants or impurities that act as (a) shallow donors, (b) shallow acceptors, or (c) introduce deep levels that may change occupancy depending on the position of the Fermi level (εF). Ga2O3 has been shown to exhibit a number of shallow donor candidates as in (a) and deep levels as in (c) that may act as donors and/or acceptors, but no shallow acceptors as in (b) due to fundamental limitations of the electronic structure. More about this image found in Schematic diagram of the behavior of dopants or impurities that act as (a) ...
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Formation energy diagrams for Fe <span class="search-highlight">impurities</span> in β-Ga<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>...
Published: February 2023
FIG. 6.9 Formation energy diagrams for Fe impurities in β-Ga2O3 shown for (a) Ga-rich (O-poor) and (b) O-rich (Ga-poor) conditions. The negative formation energies for FeGa over the entire range of Fermi levels in O-rich conditions highlight how the theoretically defined O-rich limit is thermodynamically inaccessible. More about this image found in Formation energy diagrams for Fe impurities in β-Ga2O3...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Methods
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425743_001
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2574-3
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2572-9
..., and petrophysical characteristics in these regions and wells. The shale gas extracted from wellhead mainly includes methane, natural gas liquids (NGLs, C2–C4), and impurities (H2S, CO2, N2, etc.). Among them, the change of NGLs is an important manifestation...
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(a) Ionized doping concentration in different semiconductors with respect t...
Published: February 2023
FIG. 1.6 (a) Ionized doping concentration in different semiconductors with respect to the background doping considering compensation effect of acceptor-like impurities ( Zhang and Speck, 2020 ). (b) Modified BFOM contour plot estimated from the on-resistance and breakdown field accounting ionized dopants. β-Ga2O3 shows the highest BFOM when material purity and dopant ionization efficiency are considered to estimate BFOM. Reproduced with permission from Zhang et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 35 (12), 125018. (2020). Copyright 2020 AIP Publishing LLC. More about this image found in (a) Ionized doping concentration in different semiconductors with respect t...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425613_001
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2561-3
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2560-6
... they are also called semiconductor solar cells. The conductivity of PV cells is mainly affected by impurity content and ambient light and thermal conditions ( Mathews et al., 2019 ). By structure, PV cells are divided into homojunction solar cells, heterojunction solar cells, Schottky junction solar...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Methods
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425743_004
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2574-3
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2572-9
... alternately. At any moment, one reactor is performing a steam reforming reaction while the others are going through regeneration steps. Because of CO2 adsorption, H2 is produced in one step with little CO and CO2 impurities. In addition to steam, the feasibility of using COG...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Methods
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425743_003
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2574-3
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2572-9
... ; Yu et al., 2017 ; 2019 ; and Han et al., 2018a ). Moreover, a large number of studies have focused on CO2 and H2S capture with ILs as absorbents. Herein, this chapter aims to review the state-of-the-art method for capturing impurities (water, CO2...
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SIMS profiles for N, H, and C in sample Nos. 1 (a), 2 (b), 3 (c), and 4 (d)...
Published: February 2023
FIG. 3.6 SIMS profiles for N, H, and C in sample Nos. 1 (a), 2 (b), 3 (c), and 4 (d). N2O grown layers are labeled as A, B, C, and D for sample No. 1 and E, F, and G for sample Nos. 2–4 (double-sided blue arrow shows their position). The arrow on the right shows the increasing direction for the growth temperature: as growth temperature increases, the N and H concentration drops, and at T4, the impurities are undetectable. Partially reprinted from Alema et al., APL Mater. 8 , 021110 (2020a). Copyright 2020a Authors, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. More about this image found in SIMS profiles for N, H, and C in sample Nos. 1 (a), 2 (b), 3 (c), and 4 (d)...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
0
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9
...-induced shape recovery by reverse phase transformation ,” Nature   439 , 957 – 960 ( 2006 ). 10.1038/nature04493 Kim , D. H. , Kwon , O. Y. , Kim , J. C. , and Lee , Z. H. , “ Effect of oxygen impurity on magnetostriction of directionally solidified...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425590_002
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9
... is obtained either from a constrained DFT calculation or used as a variable parameter. DMFT is a non-perturbative method based on Anderson's impurity model [ Eq. (2.9) ] in which the non-local correlations are neglected. The problem of many interacting electrons in a lattice is mapped on to an impurity model...
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Formation energy diagram for Mg dopants in β-Ga<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> sh...
Published: February 2023
FIG. 6.12 Formation energy diagram for Mg dopants in β-Ga2O3 shown for (a) Ga-rich (O-poor) and (b) O-rich (Ga-poor) conditions as adapted from Ritter et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 113 (5), 052101 (2018). Copyright 2018 AIP Publishing LLC and Peelaers et al., APL Mater. 7 (2), 022519 (2019). Copyright 2019 AIP Publishing LLC. The figures also illustrate that moving the Fermi level away from the CBM with acceptor doping can also enhance the incorporation of donors such as deep donor IrGa impurities which were shown to be present in higher concentrations in Mg-doped single crystals ( Ritter et al., 2018 ). More about this image found in Formation energy diagram for Mg dopants in β-Ga2O3 sh...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: February 2023
10.1063/9780735425033_007
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2503-3
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2500-2
... mobility. The motivation comes from the fact that the impurities are now remotely placed from the channel which minimizes the ionized impurity scattering and also a very high electron density can be achieved in the 2-DEG which provides a very good screening from other potential scattering mechanisms...
Book
Book
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425590_001
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9
... was substituted with Bi up to 15 at.% with any further increase of bismuth leading to impurity of bismuth oxide phases. Thus the discussions are limited to 15 at.%, i.e., Y(1 − x)BixCrO3 (YBiCO) ((YCO; x = 0...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: February 2023
10.1063/9780735425033_006
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2503-3
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2500-2
... in Ga2O3. We discuss both theoretical calculations that have addressed the behavior of important dopants and impurities as well as experimental assessments in a range of doped samples. FIG. 6.1 Schematic diagram of the behavior of dopants or impurities that act as (a) shallow donors, (b) shallow...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: February 2023
10.1063/9780735425033_003
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2503-3
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2500-2
... releases a stable ethylene group, thereby minimizing the contamination of the growing layer with hydrogen and carbon. Both elements are common impurities in MOCVD-grown epilayers as they originate from the metalorganic precursors. Control of these impurities and other native defects such as Ga vacancies...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425590_009
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9
.... , Kwon , O. Y. , Kim , J. C. , and Lee , Z. H. , “ Effect of oxygen impurity on magnetostriction of directionally solidified Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.8 ,” IEEE Trans. Magn.   40 , 2781 – 2783 ( 2004 ). 10.1109/TMAG.2004.832136 Kishore , S. , Markandeyulu...
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Overview of low field mobility. (a) The conventional unit cell of β-Ga<sub></sub>...
Published: February 2023
FIG. 7.1 Overview of low field mobility. (a) The conventional unit cell of β-Ga2O3 with the Cartesian direction convention followed in this chapter. Reproduced with permission from Ghosh and Singisetti, J. Appl. Phys. 122 , 035702 (2017a). Copyright 2017a AIP Publishing LLC. (b) The calculated scattering strength of different POP phonon modes for three different electron energies. Reproduced with permission from Ghosh and Singisetti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109 , 072102 (2016). (c) Dependence of electron mobility with temperature and comparison with experimentally measured Hall mobility. Reproduced with permission from Ghosh and Singisetti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109 , 072102 (2016). Copyright 2016 AIP Publishing LLC. (d) Dependence of electron mobility on electron concentration for two different directions. Triangles indicate phonon only scattering limited mobility, while circles represent the mobility including both phonon and impurity scatterings. Reproduced with permission from Ghosh and Singisetti, J. Mater. Res. 32 , 4142–4152 (2017b). Copyright 2016 Springer Nature. More about this image found in Overview of low field mobility. (a) The conventional unit cell of β-Ga...
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Book Cover Image
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425590
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9