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Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: February 2023
10.1063/9780735425033_004
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2503-3
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2500-2
...Mauze, A. and Speck, J. S., “Molecular beam epitaxy of β-Ga2O3,” in Ultrawide Bandgap β-Ga2O3Semiconductor: Theory and Applications, edited by J. S. Speck and E. Farzana (AIP Publishing, Melville, New York, 2023), pp...
Images
(a) Optical image of VO<sub>2</sub> <span class="search-highlight">beam</span> with one side clamped on quartz su...
Published: March 2023
FIG. 4.7 (a) Optical image of VO2 beam with one side clamped on quartz substrate ( Fan et al., 2009 ); (b) optical image of VO2 beam on bending from the edge, shows initiation of phase transition (arrow marked) ( Fan et al., 2009 ); and (c) force v/s bending displacement plot, shows the nucleation of R phase at the kinks (arrow marked) with displacement ( Fan et al., 2009 ). More about this image found in (a) Optical image of VO2 beam with one side clamped on quartz su...
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Cantilever <span class="search-highlight">beam</span> (a) immune to magnetic repulsive force, therefore, linear a...
Published: March 2023
FIG. 9.5 Cantilever beam (a) immune to magnetic repulsive force, therefore, linear and (b) subject to magnetic repulsive force; dL and dNL represent the displacement of the beam in the linear and nonlinear cases, respectively. Reproduced with permission from Andò et al., J. Micromech. Microeng. 20 (12), 125020 ( 2010 ). Copyright 2010 IOP. More about this image found in Cantilever beam (a) immune to magnetic repulsive force, therefore, linear a...
Images
(a) Micromachined interferometric accelerometer showing the two optical bea...
Published: March 2023
FIG. 7.18 (a) Micromachined interferometric accelerometer showing the two optical beams, one from the diffraction grating and second from the mirror, which will interfere at the photodetector. (b) SiN nanobeam pair acting as “zipper” photonic crystal optomechanical cavity for accelerometry ( Krause et al., 2012 ). (c) Microdisk coupled to cantilever acting as a force sensor ( Doolin et al., 2014 ). The cantilever can deflect in both out-of-plane and in-plane mechanical modes. This results in the modulation of the disk's optical resonance frequency and is read out optically using a coupled fiber. (d) Split beam nano-cavity torque sensor ( Wu et al., 2014 ) showing the three degrees of freedom. One is out-of-plane rotation of the suspended mirror about the torsion beam, the second is in-plane bending about the torsion beam, and the third is out-of-plane bending of the cantilever mirror. More about this image found in (a) Micromachined interferometric accelerometer showing the two optical bea...
Images
(a) Optomechanical crystal tightly confined mechanical and optical resonanc...
Published: March 2023
FIG. 7.25 (a) Optomechanical crystal tightly confined mechanical and optical resonances at the same physical location. This is achieved using photonic crystals to confine light and acoustic bandgap structure to confine mechanical vibrations ( Meenehan et al., 2014 ). (b) Basic setup of optical tweezer ( Ashkin et al., 1986 ) incoming spatially filtered laser beam focused using a microscope on a particle in a liquid. The focused beam undergoes reflections R1 and R2 and refraction by the sphere, resulting in a net upward force FA on the particle. More about this image found in (a) Optomechanical crystal tightly confined mechanical and optical resonanc...
Images
(a) A waveguide switch operated by moving a waveguide into and out of the b...
Published: March 2023
FIG. 7.14 (a) A waveguide switch operated by moving a waveguide into and out of the beam path between two waveguides. (b) Waveguide translation used to perform optical path routing ( Stepanovsky, 2019 ). More about this image found in (a) A waveguide switch operated by moving a waveguide into and out of the b...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735424395_002
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2439-5
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2436-4
... to body weight ratio is about 10%, whereas in an adult, it is only around 2−4%. Allometric scaling is also observed in mechanical structures. For example, the stiffness of cantilever beams scales inversely to its length (as will be shown later). As a result, the natural frequency of MEMS cantilevers...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425590_004
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9
... or high frequency dynamic strain can affect the transition temperature. Fan et al. have shown how the bending of VO2 nanobeam drives the nucleation of phase transition in the beam, as presented in Figs. 4.7(a) – 4.7(c) ( Fan et al., 2009 ). The optical image...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425590_005
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9
... for many decades to characterize the atomic-scale structure of materials. A nearly parallel electron beam is used to illuminate a specimen, and the image formed in the electron beam that passes through the specimen is magnified by an objective and following lenses. During the image formation, an objective...
Images
(a) Two-axis MEMS mirror and grating based 1 × N wavelength router ( Stepan...
Published: March 2023
FIG. 7.24 (a) Two-axis MEMS mirror and grating based 1 × N wavelength router ( Stepanovsky, 2019 ). (b) A switchable wavelength add-drop filter array implemented using coupling-gap tuning of ring resonators ( Takahashi et al., 2008 ). (c) Frequency tuning of ring resonator by changing the perimeter of the ring ( Chu and Hane, 2014 ). (d) A ring resonator tuned by the proximity of a beam near the ring ( Yao et al., 2007 ). (e) Tuning of a ring resonator by bending the ring to the proximity of a high refractive index rim ( Errando-Herranz et al., 2015 ). (f) MEMS tuned microsphere switch ( Blue et al., 2011 ). More about this image found in (a) Two-axis MEMS mirror and grating based 1 × N wavelength router ( Stepan...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Methods
Published: March 2023
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2574-3
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2572-9
... Optimization Solver ” ( accessed October 14, 2021 ). Hasuike , H. , Yoshizawa , Y. , Suzuki , A. , and Tamaura , Y. , “ Study on design of molten salt solar receivers for beam-down solar concentrator ,” Sol. Energy   80 ( 10 ), 1255 – 1262 ( 2006 ). 10.1016/j.solener.2006.03.002...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735424395_007
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2439-5
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2436-4
... of optical signals and particle manipulation. The forces associated with ordinary optical intensities are extremely small and are useful only in tightly confined optical beams and on very small particles. The optical forces are enhanced in the evanescent field of waveguides, particularly if the waveguide...
Images
Schematic of (a) basic parallel plate electrostatic actuator ( Errando-Herr...
Published: March 2023
FIG. 7.7 Schematic of (a) basic parallel plate electrostatic actuator ( Errando-Herranz et al., 2020 ) and (b) a comb drive for linear motion. Schematic of (c) a basic scratch drive actuator (SDA) ( Akiyama and Fujita, 1995 ). Step by step crawling motion of the actuator under pulse voltage input. (d) Pressing down of plate with rising voltage pushing the bushing forward. (e) Releasing of the SDA by falling voltage resulting in pulling the plate to right while pinning down the bush due to its shape. (f) Negative rise of voltage resulting in another pressing down of the beam resulting in the bushing moving to the left resulting in net rightward motion of the plate from the starting point. This process repeats for each half cycle. More about this image found in Schematic of (a) basic parallel plate electrostatic actuator ( Errando-Herr...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735424395_003
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2439-5
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2436-4
... and Lechuga, Analyst 135 , 827–836 ( 2010 ). Copyright 2010 Royal Society of Chemistry. Types of detection methods Optical methods Currently, there are various types of optical methods; the most common among them is optical beam based deflection technique. The laser light focused on the tip...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425590_011
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9
... several studies and technological advancements, the widespread practical application of such materials remains rather limited. Experimental growth techniques like molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) and chemical vapor transport (CVT) have been used quite successfully...
Book
Book Cover Image
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735424395
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2439-5
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2436-4
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Principles
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425590_010
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2559-0
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2556-9
... (the magnetic phase is mostly electronically conducting) and greater freedom and flexibility in the fabrication. 2-2 type ME composites are deposited by different techniques such as pulsed laser deposition, chemical vapor deposition, sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, spin coating, spray pyrolysis, and spin...
Book Chapter
Series: AIPP Books, Professional
Published: March 2023
10.1063/9780735425514_001
EISBN: 978-0-7354-2551-4
ISBN: 978-0-7354-2548-4
..., and a magnetic board to support students to tactilely engage with the diagrams. Similarly, de Azevedo et al. (2015) suggest shining laser beams on students' hands or arms in order to allow them to feel the laser beam as a means to provide tactile access to laser light. The authors also include safety...