Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is increasingly used to analyze cultural heritage materials because it can simultaneously detect organic and inorganic materials while mapping them on a surface. The precise identification of a pigment in a specific layer of a painting or of remaining color on a statue can inform about the technique used or the time of manufacture as well as expose possible forgeries when anachronistic ingredients are identified. Reference spectra are required to confidently identify a given pigment using ToF-SIMS. This database focuses on six white pigments made from calcium-rich natural or synthetized materials, prepared following traditional processes. Such pigments are frequently found in the preparation layers, namely, “ground,” separating the support from the observable paint layers, and providing a smooth surface to hold the paint on while preventing its absorption by the substrate. Differentiating between these pigments is helpful to better describe the painting practice. Here, ToF-SIMS reference spectra using a Bi3+ primary ion species are presented for both polarities.

  • Accession #: 01931, 01932, 01933, 01934, 01935, 01936

  • Technique: SIMS

  • Specimen: Alba Albula, Bianco San Giovanni, Eggshell white, Dolomite, Anhydrite plaster, Natural alabaster

  • Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV

  • Major Species in Spectra: O, H, Si, S, Al, C, Ca, Na, Mg, K, P, Cl

  • Minor Species in Spectra: Hydrocarbon contamination

  • Published Spectra: 12

  • Spectral Category: Reference

ToF-SIMS imaging can detect a wide range of elements, so colored minerals can be identified and mapped, given that reference spectra are available for reliable assignment. Here, we provide a ToF-SIMS spectral database for six white pigments made of calcium-rich materials. Such materials are likely to be present in historical paintings and painted objects, especially in the deeper layers, commonly referred to as “ground” or “preparation” layers. Their structure and composition depends on the time and place in art history.

The reference materials were supplied by specialized manufacturers selling pigments reproducing historical recipes as closely as possible, such as Kremer Pigmente GmbH, Masters Pigments, Laverdure, and Sennelier. Pigments were available as finely ground powder of variable particle size (between one and a few tens of μm) conditioned in glass sealed vials. In paintings, pigment particles are dispersed and not dissolved, so all references were analyzed without any preparation treatment. Natural and synthetic pigments may contain impurities, and specimen compositions described below are the major components as found on the material data sheets provided by the suppliers.

A stainless-steel spatula was cleaned with propan-2-ol and the powder was directly deposited on a 1 × 1 mm2 piece of conductive double-sided tape (3M Electrically Conductive Adhesive Transfer Tape 9703) already fixed to a 1 cm × 1 cm × 0.125 mm stainless steel plate (17-7PH, Goodfellow Cambridge Limited, UK) fitting the dimensions of the sample holder. A hand press covered with clean aluminum foil was applied onto the powder to fix it to the tape. This allowed us to minimize the risk of dust formation when operating in the analysis chamber under ultrahigh vacuum (10−8–10−9 hPa) while ensuring a flat surface.

All spectra were obtained on an IONTOF TOF SIMS IV equipped with a 25 keV bismuth liquid metal ion gun and an argon gas cluster ion beam (GCIB). Before all analyses, a 500 × 500 μm2 surface was cleaned using 1500–2000 Ar clusters with a kinetic energy of 20 keV (sputter ion dose 2 × 1015 ions/cm2). Analyses were then performed on a 250 × 250 μm2 area centered in this larger cleaned area, rastered over 128 × 128 pixels using the high current bunched mode. Primary ion dose (25 keV Bi3+) was 4.35 × 1011 ions/cm2. Surface potential was compensated and charging of the sample was compensated with the low-energetic 20 eV electrons of the flood gun.

All positive polarity data were calibrated using the same set of peaks appearing in all spectra, namely, Na+ at m/z 22.99, Ca+ at m/z 39.96, Ca2O+ at m/z 95.92, Ca3O2+ at m/z 151.88, Ca4O3+ at m/z 207.83, Ca5O4+ at m/z 263.79, and Ca6O5+ at m/z 319.75. All negative polarity data were calibrated using combinations of the following ions: Cl at m/z 34.97, CaO at m/z 55.96, CaO2H at m/z 72.96, Ca2O3H at m/z 128.92, and Ca3O4H at m/z 184.88. These calibration lists allowed for an adequate coverage of the mass range of interest, and the calcium containing calibration ions could be verified using their isotopic pattern. The actual calibration set for each individual dataset can be found in the associated table.

Figures and tables presented below contain the major peaks for both polarities. Each pigment is uniquely identified thanks to an accession number and they are grouped according to their composition and described in the following section. Their historical relevance is briefly described based on the current literature.1–5 The Spectrum ID# refers to that number, added with “−01” for positive spectra and with “−02” for negative spectra.

Specimen: Alba Albula, warm white chalk from Albula, Switzerland (Kremer Pigmente ref. 11283)

CAS Registry #: 471-34-1

Specimen Characteristics: Unknown homogeneity; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder

Chemical Name: Calcium carbonate

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: CaCO3

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: White earths derived directly from calcite-rich clay sediments are one of the oldest pigments. They are often found in the preparation layer applied to the substrate of a painting. This white pigment with a beige hue is made by ground stones naturally found in the Albula mountain pass (Switzerland). It is likely to contain other minerals than calcite.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto conductive double-sided tape attached to stainless steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current 2.35A. Residual surface potential was compensated before analysis.

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6 Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: Ar1500−2000, 20 keV, 2 × 1015 ions/cm2

Specimen: Bianco San Giovanni (Kremer Pigmente ref. 11415)

CAS Registry #: 471-34-1 and 1305-62-0-1

Specimen Characteristics: Unknown homogeneity; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder

Chemical Name: Calcium carbonate with calcium hydroxide

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: CaCO3 + Ca(OH)2

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: White pigment prepared according to Cennino Cenninis recipe. Mainly composed of hydrated lime that was slowly dried and very finely ground (well below 150 μm for instance).

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto conductive double-sided tape attached to stainless steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current 2.35 A. Residual surface potential was compensated before analysis.

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6 Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: Ar1500−2000, 20 keV, 2 × 1015 ions/cm2

Specimen: Eggshell White (Kremer Pigmente ref. 11410)

CAS Registry #: Unknown

Specimen Characteristics: Unknown homogeneity; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder

Chemical Name: Ground eggshell

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: CaCO3, MgCO3, Ca3(PO4)2, proteins from the shell

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: Finely ground eggshell is an easily accessible source of white pigment in a workshop and is frequently mentioned in preparations. The material has been classified as an inorganic pigment in this paper, as it mainly consists of calcium and magnesium carbonates. It is, however, worth noticing that some fragments originating from the peptide backbone of proteins, naturally found in the eggshell structure, can be detected using ToF-SIMS in this pigment.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto conductive double-sided tape attached to stainless steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current 2.35 A. Residual surface potential was compensated before analysis.

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6 Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: Ar1500−2000, 20 keV, 2 × 1015 ions/cm2

Specimen: Dolomite 10 μ (Kremer Pigmente ref. 58740)

CAS Registry #: 16389-88-1

Specimen Characteristics: Unknown homogeneity; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder

Chemical Name: Natural calcium-magnesium carbonate

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: CaMg(CO3)2

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: White CaMg(CO3)2-rich white sediments or minerals are often found in the preparation layer applied to the substrate of a painting.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto conductive double-sided tape attached to stainless steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current 2.35 A. Residual surface potential was compensated before analysis.

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6 Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: Ar1500−2000, 20 keV, 2 × 1015 ions/cm2

Specimen: (Accession #01935) Anhydrite plaster, burnt gypsum (Kremer Pigmente ref. 58320), (Accession #01936) Natural alabaster plaster (Kremer Pigmente ref. 58340).

CAS Registry #: 7778-18-9

Specimen Characteristics: Unknown homogeneity; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder

Chemical Name: (Accession #01935) Calcium sulfate anhydrite, (Accession #01936) Calcium sulfate dihydrate + calcium sulfate alpha hemihydrate

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: (Accession #01935) CaSO4, (Accession #01936) CaSO4⋅1/2H2O (n = 1/2, 2)

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: Natural plasters are found in many paint mixtures as a filler to lighten a color or as a preparation material. Characterizing gypsum is important to understand the structure of a painted artwork. Natural gypsum contains strontium inclusions.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto conductive double-sided tape attached to stainless steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current 2.35 A. Surface potential was corrected (sample dependent).

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6 Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: Ar1500−2000, 20 keV, 2 × 1015 ions/cm2

Manufacturer and Model: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV

Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight

Sample Rotation: No

Rotation Rate: 0 rpm

Oxygen Flood Source: None

Oxygen Flood Pressure: N/A

Other Flood Source: None

Other Flood Pressure: N/A

Unique Instrument Features Used: None

Energy Acceptance Window: 20 eV

Post-acceleration Voltage: 10 000 eV

Sample Bias: 10–20 eV

Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer ( Θ e ):

Ion source 1 of 2

Purpose of this Ion Source: Analysis beam

Ion Source Manufacturer: IONTOF GmbH

Ion Source Model: Liquid Metal Ion Gun (LMIG) with bismuth cluster (25 keV)

Beam Mass Filter: Yes

Beam Species and Charge State: Bi3+

Beam Gating Used: Double pulsed + Bunched

Additional Beam Comments: None

Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV

Net Beam Voltage (impact voltage): 25 000 eV

Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns

Ion Pulse Rate: 5–10 kHz

DC Beam Current: ∼10 nA

Pulsed Beam Current: ∼0.0004 nA

Current Measurement Method: Faraday cup

Beam Diameter: ∼2 μm

Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2

Raster Pixel Dimensions: 128 × 128

Beam Incident Angle: 45°

Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45°

Ion source 2 of 2

Purpose of this Ion Source: Sputtering beam

Ion Source Manufacturer: IONTOF GmbH

Ion Source Model: GCIB

Beam Mass Filter: Yes

Beam Species and Charge State: Arn+ with n = 1500−2000

Beam Gating Used: Wien filter

Additional Beam Comments: Used as sputter gun, not analysis mode

Beam Voltage: 20 000 eV

Net Beam Voltage (impact voltage): 20 000 eV

Ion Pulse Width: N/A ns

Ion Pulse Rate: N/A

DC Beam Current: ∼10 nA

Pulsed Beam Current: N/A

Current Measurement Method: Faraday cup

Beam Diameter: ∼50 μm

Beam Raster Size: 500 × 500 μm2

Raster Pixel Dimensions: N/A

Beam Incident Angle: 45°

Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45°

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01931-01 23.984 (−42.8) Mg+ – 
26.980 (−30.0) Al+ Clay 
27.975 (−33.7) Si+ Clay 
38.965 (52.6) K+ – 
79.945 (38.0) CaMgO+ – 
135.900 (3.30) Ca2MgO2+ – 
191.858 (4.51) Ca3O2MgO+ – 
231.833 (−17.0) Ca3O2(MgO)2+ – 
247.816 (5.49) Ca4O3MgO+ – 
287.796 (5.88) Ca4O3(MgO)2+ CaCO3 
303.773 (3.81) Ca5O4MgO+ CaCO3 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01931-01 23.984 (−42.8) Mg+ – 
26.980 (−30.0) Al+ Clay 
27.975 (−33.7) Si+ Clay 
38.965 (52.6) K+ – 
79.945 (38.0) CaMgO+ – 
135.900 (3.30) Ca2MgO2+ – 
191.858 (4.51) Ca3O2MgO+ – 
231.833 (−17.0) Ca3O2(MgO)2+ – 
247.816 (5.49) Ca4O3MgO+ – 
287.796 (5.88) Ca4O3(MgO)2+ CaCO3 
303.773 (3.81) Ca5O4MgO+ CaCO3 

Accession #:01931-01
■ Specimen: Alba Albula – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11283 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Accession #:01931-01
■ Specimen: Alba Albula – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11283 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 

Accession #:01931-01
■ Specimen: Alba Albula – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11283 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Accession #:01931-01
■ Specimen: Alba Albula – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11283 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01931-02 15.995 (−8.90) O – 
63.961 (−16.7) SO2 – 
75.966 (43.5) SiO3 Clay 
79.959 (16.3) SO3 – 
99.946 (−14.8) CaCO3 CaCO3 
116.948 (−17.9) CaOHCO3 CaCO3 
118.938 (−1.81) AlSiO4 Clay 
178.907 (6.51) Si2AlO6 Clay 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01931-02 15.995 (−8.90) O – 
63.961 (−16.7) SO2 – 
75.966 (43.5) SiO3 Clay 
79.959 (16.3) SO3 – 
99.946 (−14.8) CaCO3 CaCO3 
116.948 (−17.9) CaOHCO3 CaCO3 
118.938 (−1.81) AlSiO4 Clay 
178.907 (6.51) Si2AlO6 Clay 

Accession #:01931-02
■ Specimen: Alba Albula – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11283 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The peak at m/z 59.98 could be attributed to CO3 along with a near isobaric interference from SiO2, thanks to the ion images. 
Accession #:01931-02
■ Specimen: Alba Albula – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11283 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The peak at m/z 59.98 could be attributed to CO3 along with a near isobaric interference from SiO2, thanks to the ion images. 

Accession #:01931-02
■ Specimen: Alba Albula – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11283 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The peak at m/z 59.98 could be attributed to CO3 along with a near isobaric interference from SiO2, thanks to the ion images. 
Accession #:01931-02
■ Specimen: Alba Albula – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11283 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The peak at m/z 59.98 could be attributed to CO3 along with a near isobaric interference from SiO2, thanks to the ion images. 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01932-01 39.962 (4.34) Ca+ Ca(OH)2 
56.965 (3.08) CaOH+ Ca(OH)2 
95.920 (6.66) Ca2O+ Ca(OH)2 
111.916 (16.7) Ca2O2+ Ca(OH)2 
112.925 (24.1) Ca2O2H+ Ca(OH)2 
151.878 (3.21) Ca3O2+ Ca(OH)2 
167.873 (4.08) Ca3O3+ Ca(OH)2 
168.881 (6.44) Ca3O3H+ Ca(OH)2 
207.833 (−6.07) Ca4O3+ Ca(OH)2 
223.829 (−1.46) Ca4O4+ Ca(OH)2 
224.838 (1.07) Ca4O4H+ Ca(OH)2 
263.789 (−10.4) Ca5O4+ Ca(OH)2 
279.784 (−10.1) Ca5O5+ Ca(OH)2 
280.794 (−2.46) Ca5O5H+ Ca(OH)2 
319.744 (−18.9) Ca6O5+ Ca(OH)2 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01932-01 39.962 (4.34) Ca+ Ca(OH)2 
56.965 (3.08) CaOH+ Ca(OH)2 
95.920 (6.66) Ca2O+ Ca(OH)2 
111.916 (16.7) Ca2O2+ Ca(OH)2 
112.925 (24.1) Ca2O2H+ Ca(OH)2 
151.878 (3.21) Ca3O2+ Ca(OH)2 
167.873 (4.08) Ca3O3+ Ca(OH)2 
168.881 (6.44) Ca3O3H+ Ca(OH)2 
207.833 (−6.07) Ca4O3+ Ca(OH)2 
223.829 (−1.46) Ca4O4+ Ca(OH)2 
224.838 (1.07) Ca4O4H+ Ca(OH)2 
263.789 (−10.4) Ca5O4+ Ca(OH)2 
279.784 (−10.1) Ca5O5+ Ca(OH)2 
280.794 (−2.46) Ca5O5H+ Ca(OH)2 
319.744 (−18.9) Ca6O5+ Ca(OH)2 

Accession #:01932-01
■ Specimen: Bianco San Giovanni – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11415 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Accession #:01932-01
■ Specimen: Bianco San Giovanni – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11415 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 

Accession #:01932-01
■ Specimen: Bianco San Giovanni – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11415 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Accession #:01932-01
■ Specimen: Bianco San Giovanni – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11415 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01932-02 44.999 (8.89) CO2H CaCO3 
56.966 (3.55) CaOH CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
59.986 (17.2) CO3 CaCO3 
72.964 (40.0) (CaO)OH Ca(OH)2 
89.965 (13.5) (CaO)(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 
90.974 (23.7) (CaOH)(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 
99.949 (6.77) CaCO3 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
115.940 (−27.8) (CaO)CO3 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
116.951 (−1.12) (CaOH)CO3 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
128.921 (17.1) (CaO)2(OH) Ca(OH)2 
136.928 (30.0) Ca2H(CO)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
146.929 (2.06) H(CaO)2(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 
152.921 (16.3) Ca2OH(CO)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
168.888 (43.6) Ca3O3H Ca(OH)2 
172.911 (15.0) (CaO)2CO3H CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
184.878 (11.3) (CaO)3(OH) Ca(OH)2 
202.885 (−4.64) H(CaO)3(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 
240.832 (−6.09) (CaO)4(OH) Ca(OH)2 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01932-02 44.999 (8.89) CO2H CaCO3 
56.966 (3.55) CaOH CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
59.986 (17.2) CO3 CaCO3 
72.964 (40.0) (CaO)OH Ca(OH)2 
89.965 (13.5) (CaO)(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 
90.974 (23.7) (CaOH)(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 
99.949 (6.77) CaCO3 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
115.940 (−27.8) (CaO)CO3 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
116.951 (−1.12) (CaOH)CO3 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
128.921 (17.1) (CaO)2(OH) Ca(OH)2 
136.928 (30.0) Ca2H(CO)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
146.929 (2.06) H(CaO)2(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 
152.921 (16.3) Ca2OH(CO)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
168.888 (43.6) Ca3O3H Ca(OH)2 
172.911 (15.0) (CaO)2CO3H CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
184.878 (11.3) (CaO)3(OH) Ca(OH)2 
202.885 (−4.64) H(CaO)3(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 
240.832 (−6.09) (CaO)4(OH) Ca(OH)2 

Accession #: 01932-02 
■ Specimen: Bianco San Giovanni – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11415 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H, Ca3O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Accession #: 01932-02 
■ Specimen: Bianco San Giovanni – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11415 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H, Ca3O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 

Accession #: 01932-02 
■ Specimen: Bianco San Giovanni – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11415 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H, Ca3O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Accession #: 01932-02 
■ Specimen: Bianco San Giovanni – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11415 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H, Ca3O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01933-01 64.970 (64.6) (CN)K+ Eggshell proteins 
65.967 (28.2) (CN)Ca+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
78.958 (27.7) KNaOH+ Eggshell materials 
121.927 (32.1) (CN)Ca2O+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
137.922 (28.8) (CNO)Ca2O+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
177.888 (46.0) (CN)Ca3O2+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
193.881 (32.2) (CNO)Ca3O2+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
233.846 (36.2) (CN)Ca4O3+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
249.842 (38.2) (CNO)Ca4O3+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
289.807 (39.6) (CN)Ca5O4+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
305.799 (29.6) (CNO)Ca5O4+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
345.762 (28.3) (CN)Ca6O5+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
361.755 (21.6) (CNO)Ca6O5+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01933-01 64.970 (64.6) (CN)K+ Eggshell proteins 
65.967 (28.2) (CN)Ca+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
78.958 (27.7) KNaOH+ Eggshell materials 
121.927 (32.1) (CN)Ca2O+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
137.922 (28.8) (CNO)Ca2O+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
177.888 (46.0) (CN)Ca3O2+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
193.881 (32.2) (CNO)Ca3O2+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
233.846 (36.2) (CN)Ca4O3+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
249.842 (38.2) (CNO)Ca4O3+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
289.807 (39.6) (CN)Ca5O4+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
305.799 (29.6) (CNO)Ca5O4+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
345.762 (28.3) (CN)Ca6O5+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
361.755 (21.6) (CNO)Ca6O5+ Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 

Accession #:01933-01
■ Specimen: Eggshell White – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11410 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Comment: Peaks attributed to (CNO)CaxOy+ are detected for this material. Additional series of peaks are detected, with lower intensity. They can be attributed to PO2(CaO)n+ and CNNa(CaO)n+ with n = 2–6 and are likely from the eggshell materials. 
Accession #:01933-01
■ Specimen: Eggshell White – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11410 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Comment: Peaks attributed to (CNO)CaxOy+ are detected for this material. Additional series of peaks are detected, with lower intensity. They can be attributed to PO2(CaO)n+ and CNNa(CaO)n+ with n = 2–6 and are likely from the eggshell materials. 

Accession #:01933-01
■ Specimen: Eggshell White – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11410 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Comment: Peaks attributed to (CNO)CaxOy+ are detected for this material. Additional series of peaks are detected, with lower intensity. They can be attributed to PO2(CaO)n+ and CNNa(CaO)n+ with n = 2–6 and are likely from the eggshell materials. 
Accession #:01933-01
■ Specimen: Eggshell White – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11410 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Comment: Peaks attributed to (CNO)CaxOy+ are detected for this material. Additional series of peaks are detected, with lower intensity. They can be attributed to PO2(CaO)n+ and CNNa(CaO)n+ with n = 2–6 and are likely from the eggshell materials. 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01933-02 26.005 (56.4) CN Eggshell proteins 
42.001 (48.5) CNO Eggshell proteins 
44.999 (26.2) CO2H CaCO3/Eggshell materials 
56.965 (−7.63) CaOH CaCO3 
59.987 (27.8) CO3 Eggshell materials 
62.966 (28.1) PO2 Eggshell materials/Ca3(PO4)2 
66.002 (51.4) C3NO Eggshell proteins 
72.964 (45.1) CaO2H CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
78.963 (52.2) PO3 Eggshell materials/Ca3(PO4)2 
89.966 (24.8) (CaO)(OH)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
90.974 (23.8) (CaOH)(OH)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
99.953 (46.2) CaCO3 CaCO3 
108.974 (14.3) CaOH(CN)2 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
115.946 (23.2) CaOCO3 CaCO3 
116.953 (19.7) CaOHCO3 CaCO3 
117.974 (9.87) Ca(CN)3 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
124.970 (20.6) CaO2H(CN)2 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
128.920 (9.25) (CaO)2(OH) CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
133.970 (14.9) CaOC3N3 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
146.931 (14.2) H(CaO)2(OH)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
149.968 (35.4) CaO2C3N3 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
173.938 (43.7) Ca2OC3N3 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
184.881 (25.6) Ca3O4H CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
202.889 (−2.97) H(CaO)3(OH)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
240.832 (−6.39) Ca4O5H CaCO3 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01933-02 26.005 (56.4) CN Eggshell proteins 
42.001 (48.5) CNO Eggshell proteins 
44.999 (26.2) CO2H CaCO3/Eggshell materials 
56.965 (−7.63) CaOH CaCO3 
59.987 (27.8) CO3 Eggshell materials 
62.966 (28.1) PO2 Eggshell materials/Ca3(PO4)2 
66.002 (51.4) C3NO Eggshell proteins 
72.964 (45.1) CaO2H CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
78.963 (52.2) PO3 Eggshell materials/Ca3(PO4)2 
89.966 (24.8) (CaO)(OH)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
90.974 (23.8) (CaOH)(OH)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
99.953 (46.2) CaCO3 CaCO3 
108.974 (14.3) CaOH(CN)2 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
115.946 (23.2) CaOCO3 CaCO3 
116.953 (19.7) CaOHCO3 CaCO3 
117.974 (9.87) Ca(CN)3 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
124.970 (20.6) CaO2H(CN)2 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
128.920 (9.25) (CaO)2(OH) CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
133.970 (14.9) CaOC3N3 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
146.931 (14.2) H(CaO)2(OH)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
149.968 (35.4) CaO2C3N3 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
173.938 (43.7) Ca2OC3N3 Eggshell proteins/CaCO3 
184.881 (25.6) Ca3O4H CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
202.889 (−2.97) H(CaO)3(OH)2 CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 
240.832 (−6.39) Ca4O5H CaCO3 

Accession #: 01933-02 
■ Specimen: Eggshell White – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11410 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H, Ca3O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Accession #: 01933-02 
■ Specimen: Eggshell White – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11410 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H, Ca3O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 

Accession #: 01933-02 
■ Specimen: Eggshell White – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11410 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H, Ca3O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Accession #: 01933-02 
■ Specimen: Eggshell White – Kremer Pigmente ref. 11410 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H, Ca3O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01934-01 23.983 (−51.8) Mg+ CaMg(CO3)2 
64.973 (11.2) Mg2OH+ CaMg(CO3)2 
79.946 (52.6) CaMgO+ CaMg(CO3)2 
119.922 (3.37) CaMg2O2+ CaMg(CO3)2 
135.902 (16.8) Ca2MgO2+ CaMg(CO3)2 
175.880 (−1.49) Ca2Mg2O3+ CaMg(CO3)2 
191.860 (16.7) Ca3O2MgO+ CaMg(CO3)2 
231.838 (4.73) Ca3O2(MgO)2+ CaMg(CO3)2 
247.818 (12.9) Ca4O3MgO+ CaMg(CO3)2 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01934-01 23.983 (−51.8) Mg+ CaMg(CO3)2 
64.973 (11.2) Mg2OH+ CaMg(CO3)2 
79.946 (52.6) CaMgO+ CaMg(CO3)2 
119.922 (3.37) CaMg2O2+ CaMg(CO3)2 
135.902 (16.8) Ca2MgO2+ CaMg(CO3)2 
175.880 (−1.49) Ca2Mg2O3+ CaMg(CO3)2 
191.860 (16.7) Ca3O2MgO+ CaMg(CO3)2 
231.838 (4.73) Ca3O2(MgO)2+ CaMg(CO3)2 
247.818 (12.9) Ca4O3MgO+ CaMg(CO3)2 

Accession #: 01934-01 
■ Specimen: Dolomite 10 μ – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58740 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 283 s 
Accession #: 01934-01 
■ Specimen: Dolomite 10 μ – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58740 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 283 s 

Accession #: 01934-01 
■ Specimen: Dolomite 10 μ – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58740 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 283 s 
Accession #: 01934-01 
■ Specimen: Dolomite 10 μ – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58740 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 283 s 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01934-02 59.983 (−31.5) CO3 CaMg(CO3)2 
90.974 (28.0) (CaOH)(OH)2 CaMg(CO3)2 
99.944 (−35.3) CaCO3 CaMg(CO3)2 
116.947 (−31.3) CaHCO4 CaMg(CO3)2 
128.914 (−30.0) (CaO)2(OH) CaMg(CO3)2 
136.921 (−15.0) Ca2H(CO)2 CaMg(CO3)2 
152.911 (−47.2) Ca2OH(CO)2 CaMg(CO3)2 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01934-02 59.983 (−31.5) CO3 CaMg(CO3)2 
90.974 (28.0) (CaOH)(OH)2 CaMg(CO3)2 
99.944 (−35.3) CaCO3 CaMg(CO3)2 
116.947 (−31.3) CaHCO4 CaMg(CO3)2 
128.914 (−30.0) (CaO)2(OH) CaMg(CO3)2 
136.921 (−15.0) Ca2H(CO)2 CaMg(CO3)2 
152.911 (−47.2) Ca2OH(CO)2 CaMg(CO3)2 

Accession #:01934-02
■ Specimen: Dolomite 10 μ – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58740 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 283 s 
Accession #:01934-02
■ Specimen: Dolomite 10 μ – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58740 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 283 s 

Accession #:01934-02
■ Specimen: Dolomite 10 μ – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58740 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 283 s 
Accession #:01934-02
■ Specimen: Dolomite 10 μ – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58740 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 283 s 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01935-01 64.971 (20.3) SO2H+ CaSO4 
71.935 (15.5) CaS+ CaSO4 
87.904 (−8.75) Sr+ Natural impurities 
87.929 (3.63) CaSO+ CaSO4 
103.924 (3.64) CaSO2+ CaSO4 
104.909 (7.02) SrOH+ Natural impurities 
127.895 (29.5) Ca2SO+ CaSO4 
143.887 (2.22) Ca2SO2+ CaSO4 
159.882 (9.09) Ca2SO3+ CaSO4 
183.853 (21.2) Ca3SO2+ CaSO4 
239.813 (26.4) Ca4SO3+ CaSO4 
255.801 (−2.38) Ca4SO4+ CaSO4 
295.770 (20.1) Ca5SO4+ CaSO4 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01935-01 64.971 (20.3) SO2H+ CaSO4 
71.935 (15.5) CaS+ CaSO4 
87.904 (−8.75) Sr+ Natural impurities 
87.929 (3.63) CaSO+ CaSO4 
103.924 (3.64) CaSO2+ CaSO4 
104.909 (7.02) SrOH+ Natural impurities 
127.895 (29.5) Ca2SO+ CaSO4 
143.887 (2.22) Ca2SO2+ CaSO4 
159.882 (9.09) Ca2SO3+ CaSO4 
183.853 (21.2) Ca3SO2+ CaSO4 
239.813 (26.4) Ca4SO3+ CaSO4 
255.801 (−2.38) Ca4SO4+ CaSO4 
295.770 (20.1) Ca5SO4+ CaSO4 

Accession #:01935-01
■ Specimen: Anhydrite plaster, burnt gypsum – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58320 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The detection of strontium in both gypsum samples is noteworthy, as it is an element found in natural gypsum.6 Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 
Accession #:01935-01
■ Specimen: Anhydrite plaster, burnt gypsum – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58320 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The detection of strontium in both gypsum samples is noteworthy, as it is an element found in natural gypsum.6 Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 

Accession #:01935-01
■ Specimen: Anhydrite plaster, burnt gypsum – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58320 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The detection of strontium in both gypsum samples is noteworthy, as it is an element found in natural gypsum.6 Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 
Accession #:01935-01
■ Specimen: Anhydrite plaster, burnt gypsum – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58320 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The detection of strontium in both gypsum samples is noteworthy, as it is an element found in natural gypsum.6 Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01935-02 15.995 (−14.9) O – 
31.972 (−6.76) S – 
34.968 (−34.1) Cl Natural impurities 
47.965 (−45.3) SO CaSO4 
59.965 (−32.2) SiO2 Natural impurities 
63.964 (31.0) SO2 CaSO4 
75.965 (42.2) SiO3 Natural impurities 
79.956 (−11.7) SO3 CaSO4 
90.967 (−38.5) CaO3H3 CaSO4 
95.948 (−39.7) SO4 CaSO4 
103.926 (9.26) CaSO2 CaSO4 
119.917 (−21.2) CaSO3 CaSO4 
128.919 (3.63) Ca2O3H CaSO4 
135.910 (−33.0) CaSO4 CaSO4 
144.898 (15.9) SO2HCa2 CaSO4 
152.915 (−16.9) CaSO5H CaSO4 
160.896 (32.2) SO3HCa2 CaSO4 
167.882 (−27.5) CaS2O4 CaSO4 
176.891 (32.2) SO4HCa2 CaSO4 
183.876 (−30.1) CaS2O5 CaSO4 
192.875 (−25.2) SO5HCa2 CaSO4 
199.870 (−31.6) CaS2O6 CaSO4 
208.865 (34.6) Ca2S2O4H CaSO4 
216.859 (−11.1) CaHS3O5 CaSO4 
224.848 (−16.8) Ca2S2O5H CaSO4 
232.851 (−24.9) CaHS3O6 CaSO4 
240.837 (−41.3) Ca2S2O6H CaSO4 
264.821 (−28.9) CaHS4O6 CaSO4 
280.820 (−14.4) CaOHS4O6 CaSO4 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01935-02 15.995 (−14.9) O – 
31.972 (−6.76) S – 
34.968 (−34.1) Cl Natural impurities 
47.965 (−45.3) SO CaSO4 
59.965 (−32.2) SiO2 Natural impurities 
63.964 (31.0) SO2 CaSO4 
75.965 (42.2) SiO3 Natural impurities 
79.956 (−11.7) SO3 CaSO4 
90.967 (−38.5) CaO3H3 CaSO4 
95.948 (−39.7) SO4 CaSO4 
103.926 (9.26) CaSO2 CaSO4 
119.917 (−21.2) CaSO3 CaSO4 
128.919 (3.63) Ca2O3H CaSO4 
135.910 (−33.0) CaSO4 CaSO4 
144.898 (15.9) SO2HCa2 CaSO4 
152.915 (−16.9) CaSO5H CaSO4 
160.896 (32.2) SO3HCa2 CaSO4 
167.882 (−27.5) CaS2O4 CaSO4 
176.891 (32.2) SO4HCa2 CaSO4 
183.876 (−30.1) CaS2O5 CaSO4 
192.875 (−25.2) SO5HCa2 CaSO4 
199.870 (−31.6) CaS2O6 CaSO4 
208.865 (34.6) Ca2S2O4H CaSO4 
216.859 (−11.1) CaHS3O5 CaSO4 
224.848 (−16.8) Ca2S2O5H CaSO4 
232.851 (−24.9) CaHS3O6 CaSO4 
240.837 (−41.3) Ca2S2O6H CaSO4 
264.821 (−28.9) CaHS4O6 CaSO4 
280.820 (−14.4) CaOHS4O6 CaSO4 

Accession #:01935-02
■ Specimen: Anhydrite plaster, burnt gypsum – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58320 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO2H, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 
Accession #:01935-02
■ Specimen: Anhydrite plaster, burnt gypsum – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58320 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO2H, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 

Accession #:01935-02
■ Specimen: Anhydrite plaster, burnt gypsum – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58320 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO2H, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 
Accession #:01935-02
■ Specimen: Anhydrite plaster, burnt gypsum – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58320 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO2H, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01936-01 64.970 (14.3) SO2H+ CaSO4 
71.935 (12.3) CaS+ CaSO4 
87.906 (12.5) Sr+ Natural impurities 
87.929 (−3.64) CaSO+ CaSO4 
103.923 (−11.6) CaSO2+ CaSO4 
104.910 (20.7) SrOH+ Natural impurities 
127.895 (25.8) Ca2SO+ CaSO4 
143.887 (1.37) Ca2SO2+ CaSO4 
159.884 (13.4) Ca2SO3+ CaSO4 
183.853 (20.5) Ca3SO2+ CaSO4 
239.812 (20.2) Ca4SO3+ CaSO4 
255.806 (16.8) Ca4SO4+ CaSO4 
295.772 (26.6) Ca5SO4+ CaSO4 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01936-01 64.970 (14.3) SO2H+ CaSO4 
71.935 (12.3) CaS+ CaSO4 
87.906 (12.5) Sr+ Natural impurities 
87.929 (−3.64) CaSO+ CaSO4 
103.923 (−11.6) CaSO2+ CaSO4 
104.910 (20.7) SrOH+ Natural impurities 
127.895 (25.8) Ca2SO+ CaSO4 
143.887 (1.37) Ca2SO2+ CaSO4 
159.884 (13.4) Ca2SO3+ CaSO4 
183.853 (20.5) Ca3SO2+ CaSO4 
239.812 (20.2) Ca4SO3+ CaSO4 
255.806 (16.8) Ca4SO4+ CaSO4 
295.772 (26.6) Ca5SO4+ CaSO4 

Accession #: 01936-01 
■ Specimen: Natural alabaster plaster – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58340 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2700 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The detection of strontium in both gypsum samples is noteworthy, as it is an element found in natural gypsum.6 Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 
Accession #: 01936-01 
■ Specimen: Natural alabaster plaster – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58340 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2700 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The detection of strontium in both gypsum samples is noteworthy, as it is an element found in natural gypsum.6 Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 

Accession #: 01936-01 
■ Specimen: Natural alabaster plaster – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58340 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2700 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The detection of strontium in both gypsum samples is noteworthy, as it is an element found in natural gypsum.6 Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 
Accession #: 01936-01 
■ Specimen: Natural alabaster plaster – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58340 – Positive polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2700 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Na+, Ca+, CaO+, Ca2O+, Ca3O2+, Ca4O3+, Ca5O4+, Ca6O5+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Positive 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: The detection of strontium in both gypsum samples is noteworthy, as it is an element found in natural gypsum.6 Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01936-02 15.995 (−7.16) O – 
31.972 (−25.2) S – 
34.968 (−44.1) Cl Natural impurities 
47.965 (−47.8) SO CaSO4 
59.966 (−27.1) SiO2 Natural impurities 
63.963 (15.6) SO2 CaSO4 
75.965 (30.0) SiO3 Natural impurities 
79.955 (−25.7) SO3 CaSO4 
90.968 (−33.0) CaO3H3 CaSO4 
95.948 (−41.0) SO4 CaSO4 
103.923 (−19.5) CaSO2 CaSO4 
119.916 (−29.8) CaSO3 CaSO4 
128.918 (−1.46) Ca2O3H CaSO4 
135.909 (−39.0) CaSO4 CaSO4 
144.896 (5.45) SO2HCa2 CaSO4 
152.915 (−15.2) CaSO5H CaSO4 
160.896 (35.5) SO3HCa2 CaSO4 
167.880 (−38.4) CaS2O4 CaSO4 
176.888 (13.6) SO4HCa2 CaSO4 
183.874 (−38.3) CaS2O5 CaSO4 
192.875 (−21.5) SO5HCa2 CaSO4 
199.871 (−24.0) CaS2O6 CaSO4 
208.862 (22.0) Ca2S2O4H CaSO4 
216.858 (−15.6) CaHS3O5 CaSO4 
224.853 (1.88) Ca2S2O5H CaSO4 
232.851 (−18.6) CaHS3O6 CaSO4 
240.841 (−22.0) Ca2S2O6H CaSO4 
264.822 (−24.7) CaHS4O6 CaSO4 
280.820 (3.40) CaOHS4O6 CaSO4 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01936-02 15.995 (−7.16) O – 
31.972 (−25.2) S – 
34.968 (−44.1) Cl Natural impurities 
47.965 (−47.8) SO CaSO4 
59.966 (−27.1) SiO2 Natural impurities 
63.963 (15.6) SO2 CaSO4 
75.965 (30.0) SiO3 Natural impurities 
79.955 (−25.7) SO3 CaSO4 
90.968 (−33.0) CaO3H3 CaSO4 
95.948 (−41.0) SO4 CaSO4 
103.923 (−19.5) CaSO2 CaSO4 
119.916 (−29.8) CaSO3 CaSO4 
128.918 (−1.46) Ca2O3H CaSO4 
135.909 (−39.0) CaSO4 CaSO4 
144.896 (5.45) SO2HCa2 CaSO4 
152.915 (−15.2) CaSO5H CaSO4 
160.896 (35.5) SO3HCa2 CaSO4 
167.880 (−38.4) CaS2O4 CaSO4 
176.888 (13.6) SO4HCa2 CaSO4 
183.874 (−38.3) CaS2O5 CaSO4 
192.875 (−21.5) SO5HCa2 CaSO4 
199.871 (−24.0) CaS2O6 CaSO4 
208.862 (22.0) Ca2S2O4H CaSO4 
216.858 (−15.6) CaHS3O5 CaSO4 
224.853 (1.88) Ca2S2O5H CaSO4 
232.851 (−18.6) CaHS3O6 CaSO4 
240.841 (−22.0) Ca2S2O6H CaSO4 
264.822 (−24.7) CaHS4O6 CaSO4 
280.820 (3.40) CaOHS4O6 CaSO4 

Accession #:01936-02
■ Specimen: Natural alabaster plaster – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58340 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO2H, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 
Accession #:01936-02
■ Specimen: Natural alabaster plaster – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58340 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO2H, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 

Accession #:01936-02
■ Specimen: Natural alabaster plaster – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58340 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO2H, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 
Accession #:01936-02
■ Specimen: Natural alabaster plaster – Kremer Pigmente ref. 58340 – Negative polarity 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: Cl, CaO2H, Ca2O3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Anhydrite and gypsum share almost identical ToF-SIMS spectra. 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE (peaks appearing in all spectra – Positive Polarity)

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
All 39.96 (13.4) Ca+ All white pigments containing calcium 
56.94 (8.77) CaOH+ All white pigments containing calcium 
95.92 (11.0) Ca2O+ All white pigments containing calcium 
111.92 (13.4) Ca2O2+ All white pigments containing calcium 
112.93 (13.4) Ca2O2H+ All white pigments containing calcium 
151.879 (13.1) Ca3O2+ All white pigments containing calcium 
167.874 (7.62) Ca3O3+ All white pigments containing calcium 
168.882 (11.1) Ca3O3H+ All white pigments containing calcium 
207.836 (7.75) Ca4O3+ All white pigments containing calcium 
223.831 (11.3) Ca4O4+ All white pigments containing calcium 
224.84 (11.7) Ca4O4H+ All white pigments containing calcium 
263.79 (11.3) Ca5O4+ All white pigments containing calcium 
279.79 (9.29) Ca5O5+ All white pigments containing calcium 
280.79 (12.0) Ca5O5H+ All white pigments containing calcium 
319.75 (6.54) Ca6O5+ All white pigments containing calcium 
335.74 (13.3) Ca6O6+ All white pigments containing calcium 
336.75 (12.1) Ca6O6H+ All white pigments containing calcium 
375.71 (5.43) Ca7O6+ All white pigments containing calcium 
391.73 (2.18) Ca7O7+ All white pigments containing calcium 
392.72 (21.1) Ca7O7H+ All white pigments containing calcium 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
All 39.96 (13.4) Ca+ All white pigments containing calcium 
56.94 (8.77) CaOH+ All white pigments containing calcium 
95.92 (11.0) Ca2O+ All white pigments containing calcium 
111.92 (13.4) Ca2O2+ All white pigments containing calcium 
112.93 (13.4) Ca2O2H+ All white pigments containing calcium 
151.879 (13.1) Ca3O2+ All white pigments containing calcium 
167.874 (7.62) Ca3O3+ All white pigments containing calcium 
168.882 (11.1) Ca3O3H+ All white pigments containing calcium 
207.836 (7.75) Ca4O3+ All white pigments containing calcium 
223.831 (11.3) Ca4O4+ All white pigments containing calcium 
224.84 (11.7) Ca4O4H+ All white pigments containing calcium 
263.79 (11.3) Ca5O4+ All white pigments containing calcium 
279.79 (9.29) Ca5O5+ All white pigments containing calcium 
280.79 (12.0) Ca5O5H+ All white pigments containing calcium 
319.75 (6.54) Ca6O5+ All white pigments containing calcium 
335.74 (13.3) Ca6O6+ All white pigments containing calcium 
336.75 (12.1) Ca6O6H+ All white pigments containing calcium 
375.71 (5.43) Ca7O6+ All white pigments containing calcium 
391.73 (2.18) Ca7O7+ All white pigments containing calcium 
392.72 (21.1) Ca7O7H+ All white pigments containing calcium 

(Mean absolute deviation values are given for the mass deviations.)

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE (peaks appearing in all spectra – Negative Polarity)

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
All 55.96 (11.0) CaO All white pigments containing calcium 
71.96 (20.9) CaO2 All white pigments containing calcium 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
All 55.96 (11.0) CaO All white pigments containing calcium 
71.96 (20.9) CaO2 All white pigments containing calcium 

(Mean absolute deviation values are given for the mass deviations.)

This work was financially supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Grant No. ANR-2015-CE29-0007 DEFIMAGE). C.B. has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon Europe Research and Innovation Programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 101108506. The authors thank Sven Kayser and Matthias Kleine-Boymann (IONTOF GmbH) for providing extended access to the software SurfaceLab 7.3 that allowed thorough processing of the data.

The authors have no conflicts to disclose.

Caroline Bouvier: Investigation (lead); Writing – original draft (lead). Sebastiaan Van Nuffel: Investigation (equal); Writing – review & editing (lead). Alain Brunelle: Conceptualization (lead); Supervision (equal); Writing – review & editing (equal).

The data that support the findings of this study are available within the article and its supplementary material.

1.
N.
Eastaugh
,
V.
Walsh
,
T.
Chaplin
, and
R.
Siddall
,
Pigment Compendium: A Dictionary and Optical Microscopy of Historical Pigments
, 1st ed. (
Routledge
,
London
,
2008
).
2.
E.
Robert
and
L.
Feller
,
Artists’ Pigments: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, Vol. 1
(
Archetype Publications
,
London
,
1986
).
3.
A.
Roy
,
Artists’ Pigments: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, Vol. 2
(
Archetype Publications
,
London
,
1993
).
4.
E. W.
FitzHugh
,
Artists’ Pigments: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, Vol. 3
(
Archetype Publications
,
London
,
1997
).
5.
J. R.
Barnett
,
S.
Miller
, and
E.
Pearce
,
Opt. Laser Technol.
38
,
445
(
2006
).
6.
E.
Franceschi
and
F.
Locardi
,
J. Cult. Herit.
15
,
522
(
2014
).

Supplementary Material