ToF-SIMS is increasingly used to analyze cultural heritage materials because it can simultaneously detect organic and inorganic materials while mapping them on a surface. The precise identification of a pigment in a specific layer of a painting or of remaining color on a statue can inform about the technique used or the time of manufacture as well as expose possible forgeries when anachronistic ingredients are identified. Reference spectra are required to confidently identify a given pigment using ToF-SIMS. This database focuses on eight lead-based historical inorganic pigments, manufactured following traditional recipes. Lead pigments have been widely used in painting until the late 19th century. Here, the negative polarity ToF-SIMS reference spectra using a Bi3+ primary ion species are presented.

  • Accession #: 01919, 01920, 01921, 01922, 01923, 01924, 01925, 01926

  • Technique: SIMS

  • Specimen: Lead tin yellow I, Naples yellow, Lead white, Flake white 10 μm, Flake white, Cerussite, Minium, Litharge

  • Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV

  • Major Species in Spectra: O, H, Si, S, Al, C, Na, Pb, K, Cl, Sb, Sn

  • Minor Species in Spectra: Hydrocarbon contamination

  • Published Spectra: 8

  • Spectral Category: Reference

ToF-SIMS imaging can detect a wide range of elements, so colored minerals can be identified and mapped, given that reference spectra are available for reliable assignment. Here, we provide a ToF-SIMS spectral database for eight lead-based inorganic pigments. Lead-based pigments have been commonly used in all painting techniques until the late 19th century and, therefore, are very likely to be found when analyzing a historical painting sample. In particular, the pigment generally referred to as “lead white” can have various compositions depending on the manufacturing process, and this paper compares a selection of them (namely, #01921, #01922, #01923, and # 01924). For each, a list of their fragmentation products is given.

The reference materials were supplied by specialized manufacturers selling pigments reproducing historical recipes as closely as possible, such as Kremer Pigmente GmbH, Master Pigments, Laverdure, and Sennelier. Pigments were available as finely ground powder of variable particle size (between one and a few tens of μm) conditioned in glass sealed vials. In paintings, pigment particles are dispersed and not dissolved, so all references were analyzed without any preparation treatment. Natural and synthetic pigments may contain impurities, and specimen compositions described below are the major components as found on the material data sheets provided by the suppliers.

A stainless-steel spatula was cleaned with propan-2-ol and the powder was directly deposited on a 1 × 1 mm2 piece of conductive double-sided tape (3M) already fixed to a 1 cm × 1 cm × 0.125 mm stainless steel plate (17-7PH, Goodfellow Cambridge Limited, UK) fitting the dimensions of the sample holder. A hand press covered with clean aluminum foil was applied onto the powder to fix it to the tape. This allowed us to minimize the risk of dust formation when operating in the analysis chamber under ultrahigh vacuum (10−8 to 10−9 hPa) while ensuring a flat surface.

All spectra were obtained on an IONTOF TOF SIMS IV equipped with a 25 keV bismuth liquid metal ion gun (LMIG) and an Argon gas cluster ion beam (GCIB). Before all analyses, a 500 × 500 μm2 surface was cleaned using 1500–2000 Ar clusters with a kinetic energy of 20 keV (sputter ion dose 2 × 1015 ions/cm2). Analyses were then performed on a 250 × 250 μm2 area rastered over 128 × 128 pixels using the high current bunched mode. Primary ion dose (25 keV Bi3+) was 4.35 × 1011 ions/cm2. Surface potential was compensated.

Data were calibrated using a set of peaks appearing in all spectra, namely, the peaks O2 at m/z 31.99, Cl at m/z 34.97, PbO2H at m/z 241.98, and 206PbPbO3H at m/z 462.94, as well as 206PbPb2O4H at m/z 686.94 for all data except #01919. This calibration list allowed for a complete coverage of the mass range of interest, and the lead-containing calibration ions could easily be verified using their isotopic pattern.

Figures and tables presented below contain the major monoisotopic peaks for negative polarity. Sn, Sb, and Pb clusters have isotopic patterns with often more than 5–10 peaks and all of them should be present for accurate identification. Full data are available within the supplementary material. Each pigment is uniquely identified, thanks to an accession number and they are grouped according to their composition and described in the following section. Their historical relevance is briefly described based on the current literature.1–5 The Spectrum ID# refer to that number.

Specimen: Lead Tin Yellow I (Kremer Pigmente ref. 10100)

CAS Registry #: 12143-43-0

Specimen Characteristics: Homogeneous; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder;

Chemical Name: Lead stannate

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: Pb2SnO4

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: A light-yellow pigment that was widely used in oil painting from the Middle Ages to the dawn of the 19th century. Prohibited today because of its lead content.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto conductive double-sided tape attached to stainless steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current 2.35 A. Surface potential was corrected (sample dependent).

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6 Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: Ar1500–2000, 20 keV, 2 × 1015 ions/cm2

Specimen: Naples Yellow (Kremer Pigmente ref. 43130)

CAS Registry #: 13510-89-9

Specimen Characteristics: Homogeneous; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder;

Chemical Name: Lead antimonate

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: Pb2Sb2O7 [and Pb3(SbO4)2]

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: A yellow pigment used on Renaissance palettes, which is synthesized by heating a lead compound (oxide or nitrate) with an antimony compound (oxide, sulfide, or potassium antimonate). Particle size is in the micrometer range.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto conductive double-sided tape attached to stainless steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current 2.35 A. Surface potential was corrected (sample dependent).

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6 Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: Ar1500–2000, 20 keV, 2 × 1015 ions/cm2

Specimen: (Accession #01921) Lead white (Kremer Pigmente ref. 46000), (Accession #01922) Flake white 10 μm (Masters Pigments ref. 901010), (Accession #01923) Flake white (Sennelier PW no.108), (Accession #01924) Cerussite (Masters Pigments ref. 951010)

CAS Registry #: (Accession #01921, #01924) 598-63-0, (Accession #01922, #01923) 1319-46-6

Specimen Characteristics: Inhomogeneous; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder;

Chemical Name: (Accession #01921, #01924) Lead (II) carbonate, synth., (Accession #01922, #01923) Lead (II) carbonate, basic

Source: (Accession #01921) Kremer Pigmente GmbH, (Accession #01922, #01924) Masters Pigments, USA, (Accession #01923) Sennelier, France

Specimen Composition: (Accession #01921, #01924) PbCO3, (Accession #01922, #01923) 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: The most widely used white pigment was progressively replaced during the beginning of the 20th century with newly available less toxic alternatives. A mixture of cerussite (lead carbonate) and hydrocerussite (basic lead carbonate) with proportions varying according to the manufacturing process can inform about the origin of the pigment. It is synthesized using lead strips, vinegar, CO2, and heat. The latter two are usually provided by a fermenting material. In the presence of acetic acid vapors, the lead surface corrodes to lead acetate, which is then converted to basic lead carbonate in the presence of CO2. This stable process has been used over centuries, and its origins date back to Ancient Greece and China. It was also used as a cosmetic since ancient times.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto conductive double-sided tape attached to stainless steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current 2.35 A. Surface potential was corrected (sample dependent).

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6 Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: Ar1500–2000, 20 keV, 2 × 1015 ions/cm2

Specimen: Minium/Red Lead (Kremer Pigmente ref. 42500)

CAS Registry #: 1314-41-6

Specimen Characteristics: Inhomogeneous; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder;

Chemical Name: Lead tetraoxide

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: Pb3O4

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: This naturally occurring lead oxide has been synthesized since early times by heating lead carbonates. Its color approaches that of cinnabar, providing a cheaper alternative. Used since ancient Greek times as a rust inhibitor for metals, it remained its main use in the 20th century until it was banned in the 1990s.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto conductive double-sided tape attached to stainless steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current 2.35 A. Surface potential was corrected (sample dependent).

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6 Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: Ar1500–2000, 20 keV, 2 × 1015 ions/cm2

Specimen: Massicot, Litharge (Kremer Pigmente ref. 43010)

CAS Registry #: 1317-36-8

Specimen Characteristics: Inhomogeneous; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder;

Chemical Name: Lead (II) oxide

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: PbO

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: Litharge and massicot are lead monoxide polymorphs with the formula PbO, respectively, red and yellow orange in appearance. They are both formed by heating lead or lead white. Litharge plays a key role in the preparation of drying oil for painting: when mixed, it accelerates polymerization of the film.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto conductive double-sided tape attached to stainless steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current 2.35 A. Surface potential was corrected (sample dependent).

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6 Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: Ar1500–2000, 20 keV, 2 × 1015 ions/cm2

Manufacturer and Model: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV

Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight

Sample Rotation: No

Rotation Rate: 0 rpm

Oxygen Flood Source: None

Oxygen Flood Pressure: N/A

Other Flood Source: None

Other Flood Pressure: N/A

Unique Instrument Features Used: None

Energy Acceptance Window: 20 eV

Post-acceleration Voltage: 10 000 eV

Sample Bias: 10–20 eV

Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer ( Θ e ):

Ion Source 1 of 2

Purpose of This Ion Source: Analysis beam

Ion Source Manufacturer: IONTOF GmbH

Ion Source Model: LMIG with bismuth cluster (25 keV)

Beam Mass Filter: Yes

Beam Species and Charge State: Bi3+

Beam Gating Used: Double pulsed + Bunched

Additional Beam Comments: None

Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV

Net Beam Voltage (impact voltage): 25 000 eV

Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns

Ion Pulse Rate: 5–10 kHz

DC Beam Current: ∼10 nA

Pulsed Beam Current: ∼0.0004 nA

Current Measurement Method: Faraday cup

Beam Diameter: ∼2 μm

Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2

Raster Pixel Dimensions: 128 × 128

Beam Incident Angle: 45°

Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45°

Ion Source 2 of 2

Purpose of this Ion Source: Sputtering beam

Ion Source Manufacturer: IONTOF GmbH

Ion Source Model: Argon GCIB

Beam Mass Filter: Yes

Beam Species and Charge State: Arn+ with n = 1500−2000

Beam Gating Used: Wien filter

Additional Beam Comments: Used as sputter gun, not analysis mode.

Beam Voltage: 20 000 eV

Net Beam Voltage (impact voltage): 20 000 eV

Ion Pulse Width: N/A

Ion Pulse Rate: N/A

DC Beam Current: ∼10 nA

Pulsed Beam Current: N/A

Current Measurement Method: Faraday cup

Beam Diameter: ∼50 μm

Beam Raster Size: 500 × 500 μm2

Raster Pixel Dimensions: N/A

Beam Incident Angle: 45°

Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45°

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente ref. 10100—Negative polarity
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01919-01 119.900 (−25.6) Sn Pb2SnO4 
135.898 (5.42) SnO Pb2SnO4 
151.896 (22.0) SnO2 Pb2SnO4 
167.890 (14.0) SnO3 Pb2SnO4 
168.899 (21.6) SnO3H Pb2SnO4 
223.974 (9.20) PbO Pb2SnO4 
239.966 (6.39) PbO2 Pb2SnO4 
255.956 (−23.7) PbO3 Pb2SnO4 
271.801 (22.0) Sn2O2 Pb2SnO4 
287.798 (29.4) Sn2O3 Pb2SnO4 
303.792 (22.9) Sn2O4 Pb2SnO4 
359.877 (21.6) PbO2Sn Pb2SnO4 
375.875 (28.5) PbO3Sn Pb2SnO4 
423.702 (35.7) Sn3O4 Pb2SnO4 
439.688 (14.6) Sn3O5 Pb2SnO4 
463.940 (3.85) Pb2O3 Pb2SnO4 
511.783 (41.8) PbOSn2O3 Pb2SnO4 
527.777 (40.3) PbOSn2O4 Pb2SnO4 
583.860 (32.4) Pb2OSnO2 Pb2SnO4 
599.853 (29.6) Pb2OSnO3 Pb2SnO4 
Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente ref. 10100—Negative polarity
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01919-01 119.900 (−25.6) Sn Pb2SnO4 
135.898 (5.42) SnO Pb2SnO4 
151.896 (22.0) SnO2 Pb2SnO4 
167.890 (14.0) SnO3 Pb2SnO4 
168.899 (21.6) SnO3H Pb2SnO4 
223.974 (9.20) PbO Pb2SnO4 
239.966 (6.39) PbO2 Pb2SnO4 
255.956 (−23.7) PbO3 Pb2SnO4 
271.801 (22.0) Sn2O2 Pb2SnO4 
287.798 (29.4) Sn2O3 Pb2SnO4 
303.792 (22.9) Sn2O4 Pb2SnO4 
359.877 (21.6) PbO2Sn Pb2SnO4 
375.875 (28.5) PbO3Sn Pb2SnO4 
423.702 (35.7) Sn3O4 Pb2SnO4 
439.688 (14.6) Sn3O5 Pb2SnO4 
463.940 (3.85) Pb2O3 Pb2SnO4 
511.783 (41.8) PbOSn2O3 Pb2SnO4 
527.777 (40.3) PbOSn2O4 Pb2SnO4 
583.860 (32.4) Pb2OSnO2 Pb2SnO4 
599.853 (29.6) Pb2OSnO3 Pb2SnO4 

Accession #:01919-01
■ Specimen: Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente ref. 10100 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2800 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.4 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 207 s 
Comment: Distinctive isotopic pattern for Sn-containing ions 
Accession #:01919-01
■ Specimen: Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente ref. 10100 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2800 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.4 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 207 s 
Comment: Distinctive isotopic pattern for Sn-containing ions 

Accession #:01919-01
■ Specimen: Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente ref. 10100 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2800 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.4 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 207 s 
Comment: Distinctive isotopic pattern for Sn-containing ions 
Accession #:01919-01
■ Specimen: Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente ref. 10100 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2800 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.4 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 207 s 
Comment: Distinctive isotopic pattern for Sn-containing ions 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01920-01 58.972 (8.57) AlO2 From manufacturing process 
59.970 (40.5) SiO2 From manufacturing process 
75.975 (−2.10) AlO3H From manufacturing process 
76.983 (9.38) AlO3H2 From manufacturing process 
79.960 (36.9) SO3 From manufacturing process 
118.943 (37.9) AlSiO4 From manufacturing process 
136.898 (−12.6) SbO Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
152.899 (29.0) SbO2 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
168.890 (6.46) SbO3 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
178.918 (0.95) AlSiO4AlO2H From manufacturing process 
195.876 (27.6) SbAlO3 From manufacturing process 
212.869 (36.5) SbOSiO3 From manufacturing process 
223.970 (−10.9) PbO Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
239.965 (−18.9) PbO2 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
254.846 (13.9) SbAl2O5 From manufacturing process 
272.859 (21.8) SbAl2O6H2 From manufacturing process 
283.947 (28.4) PbSiO3 From manufacturing process 
289.800 (23.4) Sb2O3 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
305.794 (18.5) Sb2O4 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
328.890 (26.3) PbSb Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
342.921 (31.5) PbAlSiO5 From manufacturing process 
348.771 (20.1) Sb2O5Al From manufacturing process 
376.874 (21.1) PbSbO3 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
436.845 (28.7) PbSbO3SiO2 From manufacturing process 
463.933 (−12.6) Pb2O3 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
600.860 (38.0) Pb2SbO4 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01920-01 58.972 (8.57) AlO2 From manufacturing process 
59.970 (40.5) SiO2 From manufacturing process 
75.975 (−2.10) AlO3H From manufacturing process 
76.983 (9.38) AlO3H2 From manufacturing process 
79.960 (36.9) SO3 From manufacturing process 
118.943 (37.9) AlSiO4 From manufacturing process 
136.898 (−12.6) SbO Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
152.899 (29.0) SbO2 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
168.890 (6.46) SbO3 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
178.918 (0.95) AlSiO4AlO2H From manufacturing process 
195.876 (27.6) SbAlO3 From manufacturing process 
212.869 (36.5) SbOSiO3 From manufacturing process 
223.970 (−10.9) PbO Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
239.965 (−18.9) PbO2 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
254.846 (13.9) SbAl2O5 From manufacturing process 
272.859 (21.8) SbAl2O6H2 From manufacturing process 
283.947 (28.4) PbSiO3 From manufacturing process 
289.800 (23.4) Sb2O3 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
305.794 (18.5) Sb2O4 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
328.890 (26.3) PbSb Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
342.921 (31.5) PbAlSiO5 From manufacturing process 
348.771 (20.1) Sb2O5Al From manufacturing process 
376.874 (21.1) PbSbO3 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
436.845 (28.7) PbSbO3SiO2 From manufacturing process 
463.933 (−12.6) Pb2O3 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
600.860 (38.0) Pb2SbO4 Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 

Accession #:01920-01
■ Specimen: Naples Yellow—Kremer Pigmente ref. 43130 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Distinctive isotopic pattern for Sb-containing ions 
Accession #:01920-01
■ Specimen: Naples Yellow—Kremer Pigmente ref. 43130 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Distinctive isotopic pattern for Sb-containing ions 

Accession #:01920-01
■ Specimen: Naples Yellow—Kremer Pigmente ref. 43130 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Distinctive isotopic pattern for Sb-containing ions 
Accession #:01920-01
■ Specimen: Naples Yellow—Kremer Pigmente ref. 43130 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current: 14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 210 s 
Comment: Distinctive isotopic pattern for Sb-containing ions 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01921-01 34.970 (17.5) Cl — 
58.008 (36.5) C2H2O2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
59.986 (5.70) CO3 PbCO3 
63.965 (38.9) SO2 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
79.962 (51.3) SO3 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
95.954 (16.7) SO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
121.035 (42.9) C6H4CO2H Phthalate contamination 
207.973 (−21.0) Pb PbCO3 
223.969 (−15.9) PbO PbCO3 
239.964 (−11.6) PbO2 PbCO3 
258.943 (8.45) PbOCl — 
267.957 (−19.6) PbCO3 PbCO3 
279.959 (−9.12) PbOC2O2 PbCO3 
283.962 (18.4) PbCO4 PbCO3 
303.944 (49.6) PbSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
320.951 (60.1) PbOHSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
328.007 (26.4) PbC7H4O2 — 
415.955 (3.08) Pb2 PbCO3 
431.941 (−18.8) Pb2O PbCO3 
447.936 (−16.6) Pb2O2 PbCO3 
463.931 (−16.8) Pb2O3 PbCO3 
464.937 (−20.6) Pb2O2OH PbCO3 
482.913 (0.10) Pb2O2Cl — 
503.939 (11.6) Pb2O2C2O2 PbCO3 
523.931 (15.4) Pb2O3CO3 PbCO3 
544.911 (14.6) Pb2O2HSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
623.952 (33.7) Pb3 PbCO3 
639.939 (20.8) Pb3O PbCO3 
655.933 (18.9) Pb3O2 PbCO3 
671.933 (26.1) Pb3O3 PbCO3 
687.932 (31.3) Pb3O3O PbCO3 
688.933 (22.3) Pb3O3OH PbCO3 
706.907 (31.8) Pb3O3Cl — 
727.926 (28.5) Pb3C2O5 PbCO3 
743.915 (19.5) Pb3C2O6 PbCO3 
744.917 (12.0) Pb3C2O6H PbCO3 
831.920 (15.2) Pb4 PbCO3 
911.901 (21.5) Pb4O4O PbCO3 
912.902 (13.1) Pb4O4OH PbCO3 
1039.907 (22.8) Pb5 PbCO3 
1119.906 (42.2) Pb5O5 PbCO3 
1135.879 (23.1) Pb5O6 PbCO3 
1136.888 (23.8) Pb5O5OH PbCO3 
1247.875 (11.7) Pb6 PbCO3 
1343.865 (25.8) Pb6O6 PbCO3 
1359.860 (25.8) Pb6O6O PbCO3 
1360.853 (15.2) Pb6O6OH PbCO3 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01921-01 34.970 (17.5) Cl — 
58.008 (36.5) C2H2O2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
59.986 (5.70) CO3 PbCO3 
63.965 (38.9) SO2 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
79.962 (51.3) SO3 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
95.954 (16.7) SO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
121.035 (42.9) C6H4CO2H Phthalate contamination 
207.973 (−21.0) Pb PbCO3 
223.969 (−15.9) PbO PbCO3 
239.964 (−11.6) PbO2 PbCO3 
258.943 (8.45) PbOCl — 
267.957 (−19.6) PbCO3 PbCO3 
279.959 (−9.12) PbOC2O2 PbCO3 
283.962 (18.4) PbCO4 PbCO3 
303.944 (49.6) PbSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
320.951 (60.1) PbOHSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
328.007 (26.4) PbC7H4O2 — 
415.955 (3.08) Pb2 PbCO3 
431.941 (−18.8) Pb2O PbCO3 
447.936 (−16.6) Pb2O2 PbCO3 
463.931 (−16.8) Pb2O3 PbCO3 
464.937 (−20.6) Pb2O2OH PbCO3 
482.913 (0.10) Pb2O2Cl — 
503.939 (11.6) Pb2O2C2O2 PbCO3 
523.931 (15.4) Pb2O3CO3 PbCO3 
544.911 (14.6) Pb2O2HSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
623.952 (33.7) Pb3 PbCO3 
639.939 (20.8) Pb3O PbCO3 
655.933 (18.9) Pb3O2 PbCO3 
671.933 (26.1) Pb3O3 PbCO3 
687.932 (31.3) Pb3O3O PbCO3 
688.933 (22.3) Pb3O3OH PbCO3 
706.907 (31.8) Pb3O3Cl — 
727.926 (28.5) Pb3C2O5 PbCO3 
743.915 (19.5) Pb3C2O6 PbCO3 
744.917 (12.0) Pb3C2O6H PbCO3 
831.920 (15.2) Pb4 PbCO3 
911.901 (21.5) Pb4O4O PbCO3 
912.902 (13.1) Pb4O4OH PbCO3 
1039.907 (22.8) Pb5 PbCO3 
1119.906 (42.2) Pb5O5 PbCO3 
1135.879 (23.1) Pb5O6 PbCO3 
1136.888 (23.8) Pb5O5OH PbCO3 
1247.875 (11.7) Pb6 PbCO3 
1343.865 (25.8) Pb6O6 PbCO3 
1359.860 (25.8) Pb6O6O PbCO3 
1360.853 (15.2) Pb6O6OH PbCO3 

Accession #:01921-01
■ Specimen: Lead white—Kremer Pigmente ref. 46000 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Comment: None 
Accession #:01921-01
■ Specimen: Lead white—Kremer Pigmente ref. 46000 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Comment: None 

Accession #:01921-01
■ Specimen: Lead white—Kremer Pigmente ref. 46000 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Comment: None 
Accession #:01921-01
■ Specimen: Lead white—Kremer Pigmente ref. 46000 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current: 15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 250 s 
Comment: None 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01922-01 34.971 (33.8) Cl — 
44.998 (5.24) CHO2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
58.008 (33.3) C2H2O2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
59.016 (31.1) C2H3O2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
59.987 (27.9) CO3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
79.962 (53.3) SO3 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
95.954 (14.5) SO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
114.971 (53.4) NaO2CO3 — 
121.036 (49.9) C7H5O2 Phthalate contamination 
156.986 (32.9) C2H2O2SO4H3 From manufacturing process 
223.970 (−10.1) PbO 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
239.965 (−8.51) PbO2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
258.928 (−50.2) PbOCl — 
267.946 (−59.3) PbCO3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
282.981 (−17.1) PbOC2H3O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
283.955 (−6.83) PbCO4 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
296.930 (9.08) PbO2CaOH — 
303.934 (15.9) PbSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
320.942 (31.3) PbOHSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
338.943 (19.7) PbCO3NaO3 — 
362.968 (21.0) PbO2H(HCO3)2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
422.891 (7.38) PbO3NaO3SO4 — 
431.947 (−3.27) Pb2O 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
447.946 (5.95) Pb2O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
463.947 (17.7) Pb2O3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
464.949 (5.13) Pb2O3H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
482.916 (7.54) Pb2O2Cl — 
506.970 (25.1) Pb2O2C2H3O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
520.902 (−3.07) Pb2O3CaOH — 
527.912 (21.9) Pb2OSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
544.898 (−9.24) Pb2O2HSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
562.891 (−30.3) Pb2OCO3NaO3 — 
586.951 (32.7) Pb2O3H(HCO3)2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
671.913 (−3.39) Pb3O3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
687.912 (2.40) Pb3O4 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
688.918 (−0.38) Pb3O4H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
706.887 (4.16) Pb3O3Cl — 
710.909 (13.2) NaPb3O4 — 
730.937 (10.9) Pb3O3C2H3O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
744.880 (5.46) Pb3O4CaOH — 
768.888 (17.2) HSO4Pb3O3 — 
786.891 (13.9) Pb3O2CO3NaO3 — 
911.888 (7.90) Pb4O5 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
912.895 (6.11) Pb4O5H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01922-01 34.971 (33.8) Cl — 
44.998 (5.24) CHO2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
58.008 (33.3) C2H2O2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
59.016 (31.1) C2H3O2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
59.987 (27.9) CO3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
79.962 (53.3) SO3 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
95.954 (14.5) SO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
114.971 (53.4) NaO2CO3 — 
121.036 (49.9) C7H5O2 Phthalate contamination 
156.986 (32.9) C2H2O2SO4H3 From manufacturing process 
223.970 (−10.1) PbO 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
239.965 (−8.51) PbO2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
258.928 (−50.2) PbOCl — 
267.946 (−59.3) PbCO3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
282.981 (−17.1) PbOC2H3O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
283.955 (−6.83) PbCO4 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
296.930 (9.08) PbO2CaOH — 
303.934 (15.9) PbSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
320.942 (31.3) PbOHSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
338.943 (19.7) PbCO3NaO3 — 
362.968 (21.0) PbO2H(HCO3)2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
422.891 (7.38) PbO3NaO3SO4 — 
431.947 (−3.27) Pb2O 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
447.946 (5.95) Pb2O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
463.947 (17.7) Pb2O3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
464.949 (5.13) Pb2O3H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
482.916 (7.54) Pb2O2Cl — 
506.970 (25.1) Pb2O2C2H3O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
520.902 (−3.07) Pb2O3CaOH — 
527.912 (21.9) Pb2OSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
544.898 (−9.24) Pb2O2HSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
562.891 (−30.3) Pb2OCO3NaO3 — 
586.951 (32.7) Pb2O3H(HCO3)2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
671.913 (−3.39) Pb3O3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
687.912 (2.40) Pb3O4 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
688.918 (−0.38) Pb3O4H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
706.887 (4.16) Pb3O3Cl — 
710.909 (13.2) NaPb3O4 — 
730.937 (10.9) Pb3O3C2H3O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
744.880 (5.46) Pb3O4CaOH — 
768.888 (17.2) HSO4Pb3O3 — 
786.891 (13.9) Pb3O2CO3NaO3 — 
911.888 (7.90) Pb4O5 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
912.895 (6.11) Pb4O5H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 

Accession #:01922-01
■ Specimen: Flake White 10 μm—Masters Pigments ref. 901010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current: 1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 1994 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 161 s 
Comment: None 
Accession #:01922-01
■ Specimen: Flake White 10 μm—Masters Pigments ref. 901010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current: 1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 1994 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 161 s 
Comment: None 

Accession #:01922-01
■ Specimen: Flake White 10 μm—Masters Pigments ref. 901010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current: 1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 1994 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 161 s 
Comment: None 
Accession #:01922-01
■ Specimen: Flake White 10 μm—Masters Pigments ref. 901010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current: 1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 1994 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 161 s 
Comment: None 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01923-01 17.003 (−21.5) OH — 
34.970 (18.0) Cl — 
41.004 (21.1) C2HO — 
44.998 (−9.10) CHO2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
58.008 (26.0) C2H2O2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
59.017 (48.7) C2H3O2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
59.986 (5.88) CO3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
121.038 (67.5) C7H5O2 Phthalate contamination 
207.974 (−13.8) Pb 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
223.968 (−19.8) PbO 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
239.966 (−6.10) PbO2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
240.973 (−8.00) PbO2H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
255.238 (18.9) C16H31O2 Fatty acid from contamination 
267.945 (−64.6) PbCO3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
283.269 (15.3) C18H35O2 Fatty acid from contamination 
296.930 (−8.05) PbO2CaOH — 
303.939 (33.6) PbSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
320.942 (31.5) PbOHSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
328.001 (34.0) PbC7H4O2 — 
345.019 (53.3) PbC7H5O3 — 
415.950 (−10.0) Pb2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
431.945 (−9.12) Pb2O 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
447.940 (−7.74) Pb2O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
463.942 (9.16) Pb2O3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
464.950 (6.75) Pb2O3H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
482.914 (3.43) Pb2O2Cl  
504.933 (−17.5) Pb2O2C2O2H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
506.950 (−13.6) Pb2O2C2H3O2 — 
520.896 (−14.6) Pb2O3CaOH — 
544.887 (−30.1) Pb2O2HSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
560.865 (4.97) Pb2S3O3H Sulfate from manufacturing process 
623.930 (−0.47) Pb3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
639.916 (−14.5) Pb3O 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
655.905 (−23.4) Pb3O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
671.905 (−15.4) Pb3O3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
687.911 (0.54) Pb3O4 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
688.915 (−4.55) Pb3O4H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
706.876 (−11.8) Pb3O3Cl — 
728.898 (−20.4) Pb3O3C2O2H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
744.875 (0.01) Pb3O4CaOH — 
768.879 (5.91) HSO4Pb3O3 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
784.858 (30.0) Pb3S3O4H Sulfate from manufacturing process 
911.881 (−1.02) Pb4O5 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
912.879 (−11.5) Pb4O5H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01923-01 17.003 (−21.5) OH — 
34.970 (18.0) Cl — 
41.004 (21.1) C2HO — 
44.998 (−9.10) CHO2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
58.008 (26.0) C2H2O2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
59.017 (48.7) C2H3O2 Acetate from manufacturing process 
59.986 (5.88) CO3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
121.038 (67.5) C7H5O2 Phthalate contamination 
207.974 (−13.8) Pb 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
223.968 (−19.8) PbO 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
239.966 (−6.10) PbO2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
240.973 (−8.00) PbO2H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
255.238 (18.9) C16H31O2 Fatty acid from contamination 
267.945 (−64.6) PbCO3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
283.269 (15.3) C18H35O2 Fatty acid from contamination 
296.930 (−8.05) PbO2CaOH — 
303.939 (33.6) PbSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
320.942 (31.5) PbOHSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
328.001 (34.0) PbC7H4O2 — 
345.019 (53.3) PbC7H5O3 — 
415.950 (−10.0) Pb2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
431.945 (−9.12) Pb2O 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
447.940 (−7.74) Pb2O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
463.942 (9.16) Pb2O3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
464.950 (6.75) Pb2O3H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
482.914 (3.43) Pb2O2Cl  
504.933 (−17.5) Pb2O2C2O2H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
506.950 (−13.6) Pb2O2C2H3O2 — 
520.896 (−14.6) Pb2O3CaOH — 
544.887 (−30.1) Pb2O2HSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
560.865 (4.97) Pb2S3O3H Sulfate from manufacturing process 
623.930 (−0.47) Pb3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
639.916 (−14.5) Pb3O 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
655.905 (−23.4) Pb3O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
671.905 (−15.4) Pb3O3 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
687.911 (0.54) Pb3O4 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
688.915 (−4.55) Pb3O4H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
706.876 (−11.8) Pb3O3Cl — 
728.898 (−20.4) Pb3O3C2O2H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
744.875 (0.01) Pb3O4CaOH — 
768.879 (5.91) HSO4Pb3O3 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
784.858 (30.0) Pb3S3O4H Sulfate from manufacturing process 
911.881 (−1.02) Pb4O5 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
912.879 (−11.5) Pb4O5H 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 

Accession #:01923-01
■ Specimen: Flake White—Sennelier PW no.108 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current: 1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 1994 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 161 s 
Comment: Contamination with a fatty material, probably from manufacturing process 
Accession #:01923-01
■ Specimen: Flake White—Sennelier PW no.108 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current: 1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 1994 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 161 s 
Comment: Contamination with a fatty material, probably from manufacturing process 

Accession #:01923-01
■ Specimen: Flake White—Sennelier PW no.108 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current: 1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 1994 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 161 s 
Comment: Contamination with a fatty material, probably from manufacturing process 
Accession #:01923-01
■ Specimen: Flake White—Sennelier PW no.108 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 3100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current: 1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 1994 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 161 s 
Comment: Contamination with a fatty material, probably from manufacturing process 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01924-01 34.970 (9.2) Cl — 
95.955 (32.1) SO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
135.939 (−20.2) SiAlO5H Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
178.919 (6.84) SiAl2O6H Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
195.913 (22.3) Si2AlO7H Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
207.971 (−28.0) Pb PbCO3 
223.968 (−18.5) PbO PbCO3 
239.965 (−8.89) PbO2 PbCO3 
258.950 (34.1) PbOCl — 
267.955 (−29.8) PbCO3 PbCO3 
283.961 (15.6) PbCO4 PbCO3 
299.954 (8.88) PbO2CO3 PbCO3 
303.945 (53.5) PbSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
320.949 (54.4) PbSO5H Sulfate from manufacturing process 
322.850 (10.1) Al6O10H Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
338.937 (0.28) PbCO3NaO3 — 
342.923 (36.9) PbOAlSiO4 Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
343.941 (−1.17) PbOC2O6 PbCO3 
359.936 (−0.71) PbO2C2O6 PbCO3 
403.910 (60.4) PbAl2SiO6H2 Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
415.964 (23.7) Pb2 PbCO3 
431.939 (−23.3) Pb2O PbCO3 
447.942 (−3.53) Pb2O2 PbCO3 
463.935 (−8.36) Pb2O3 PbCO3 
464.949 (5.76) Pb2O3H PbCO3 
482.917 (7.15) Pb2ClO2 — 
506.949 (−16.7) Pb2O2C2H3O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
524.948 (32.0) Pb2O3CO3H PbCO3 
566.890 (14.1) Pb2O2AlSiO4 Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
583.904 (34.0) Pb2O3HAlSiO4 Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
623.940 (15.8) Pb3 PbCO3 
639.934 (13.0) Pb3O PbCO3 
655.914 (−10.1) Pb3O2 PbCO3 
671.928 (19.4) Pb3O3 PbCO3 
687.929 (27.1) Pb3O4 PbCO3 
688.944 (37.3) Pb3O4H PbCO3 
731.915 (21.0) Pb3O3CO3 PbCO3 
748.922 (25.8) Pb3O3CO4H PbCO3 
790.883 (37.9) Pb3O3AlSiO4 Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
807.885 (36.2) Pb3O4AlSiO4H Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
831.926 (23.1) Pb4 PbCO3 
911.896 (15.5) Pb4O5 PbCO3 
912.922 (36.0) Pb4O5H PbCO3 
952.896 (12.1) Pb4C2O6H PbCO3 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01924-01 34.970 (9.2) Cl — 
95.955 (32.1) SO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
135.939 (−20.2) SiAlO5H Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
178.919 (6.84) SiAl2O6H Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
195.913 (22.3) Si2AlO7H Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
207.971 (−28.0) Pb PbCO3 
223.968 (−18.5) PbO PbCO3 
239.965 (−8.89) PbO2 PbCO3 
258.950 (34.1) PbOCl — 
267.955 (−29.8) PbCO3 PbCO3 
283.961 (15.6) PbCO4 PbCO3 
299.954 (8.88) PbO2CO3 PbCO3 
303.945 (53.5) PbSO4 Sulfate from manufacturing process 
320.949 (54.4) PbSO5H Sulfate from manufacturing process 
322.850 (10.1) Al6O10H Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
338.937 (0.28) PbCO3NaO3 — 
342.923 (36.9) PbOAlSiO4 Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
343.941 (−1.17) PbOC2O6 PbCO3 
359.936 (−0.71) PbO2C2O6 PbCO3 
403.910 (60.4) PbAl2SiO6H2 Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
415.964 (23.7) Pb2 PbCO3 
431.939 (−23.3) Pb2O PbCO3 
447.942 (−3.53) Pb2O2 PbCO3 
463.935 (−8.36) Pb2O3 PbCO3 
464.949 (5.76) Pb2O3H PbCO3 
482.917 (7.15) Pb2ClO2 — 
506.949 (−16.7) Pb2O2C2H3O2 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
524.948 (32.0) Pb2O3CO3H PbCO3 
566.890 (14.1) Pb2O2AlSiO4 Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
583.904 (34.0) Pb2O3HAlSiO4 Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
623.940 (15.8) Pb3 PbCO3 
639.934 (13.0) Pb3O PbCO3 
655.914 (−10.1) Pb3O2 PbCO3 
671.928 (19.4) Pb3O3 PbCO3 
687.929 (27.1) Pb3O4 PbCO3 
688.944 (37.3) Pb3O4H PbCO3 
731.915 (21.0) Pb3O3CO3 PbCO3 
748.922 (25.8) Pb3O3CO4H PbCO3 
790.883 (37.9) Pb3O3AlSiO4 Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
807.885 (36.2) Pb3O4AlSiO4H Aluminosilicate (possible filler) 
831.926 (23.1) Pb4 PbCO3 
911.896 (15.5) Pb4O5 PbCO3 
912.922 (36.0) Pb4O5H PbCO3 
952.896 (12.1) Pb4C2O6H PbCO3 

Accession #:01924-01
■ Specimen: Cerussite—Masters Pigments ref. 951010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2200 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8 - 1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: The peak at m/z 59.98 can be attributed to CO3 along with a near isobaric interference from SiO2, thanks to the ion images. The mass range attributed to CO3 exhibits the same spatial distribution as lead-containing ions, while the mass range attributed to SiO2 exhibits the same spatial distribution as the other aluminosilicate ions 
Accession #:01924-01
■ Specimen: Cerussite—Masters Pigments ref. 951010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2200 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8 - 1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: The peak at m/z 59.98 can be attributed to CO3 along with a near isobaric interference from SiO2, thanks to the ion images. The mass range attributed to CO3 exhibits the same spatial distribution as lead-containing ions, while the mass range attributed to SiO2 exhibits the same spatial distribution as the other aluminosilicate ions 

Accession #:01924-01
■ Specimen: Cerussite—Masters Pigments ref. 951010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2200 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8 - 1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: The peak at m/z 59.98 can be attributed to CO3 along with a near isobaric interference from SiO2, thanks to the ion images. The mass range attributed to CO3 exhibits the same spatial distribution as lead-containing ions, while the mass range attributed to SiO2 exhibits the same spatial distribution as the other aluminosilicate ions 
Accession #:01924-01
■ Specimen: Cerussite—Masters Pigments ref. 951010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2200 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8 - 1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: The peak at m/z 59.98 can be attributed to CO3 along with a near isobaric interference from SiO2, thanks to the ion images. The mass range attributed to CO3 exhibits the same spatial distribution as lead-containing ions, while the mass range attributed to SiO2 exhibits the same spatial distribution as the other aluminosilicate ions 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01925-01 15.996 (11.9) O (saturated) 
34.970 (24.1) Cl — 
207.971 (−29.5) Pb Pb3O4 
223.971 (−6.51) PbO Pb3O4 
239.966 (−6.29) PbO2 Pb3O4 
415.954 (0.12) Pb2 Pb3O4 
431.936 (−28.9) Pb2O Pb3O4 
447.938 (−13.6) Pb2O2 Pb3O4 
463.931 (−17.1) Pb2O3 Pb3O4 
464.938 (−17.5) Pb2O3H Pb3O4 
482.907 (−10.8) Pb2ClO2 — 
623.947 (26.1) Pb3 Pb3O4 
639.939 (21.3) Pb3O Pb3O4 
655.932 (17.3) Pb3O2 Pb3O4 
671.930 (22.0) Pb3O3 Pb3O4 
687.929 (27.6) Pb3O4 Pb3O4 
688.937 (27.3) Pb3O4H Pb3O4 
706.904 (28.7) Pb3O3Cl — 
831.916 (10.8) Pb4 Pb3O4 
911.908 (28.9) Pb4O5 Pb3O4 
1039.903 (18.2) Pb5 Pb3O4 
1119.886 (24.9) Pb5O5 Pb3O4 
1135.888 (30.9) Pb5O6 Pb3O4 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01925-01 15.996 (11.9) O (saturated) 
34.970 (24.1) Cl — 
207.971 (−29.5) Pb Pb3O4 
223.971 (−6.51) PbO Pb3O4 
239.966 (−6.29) PbO2 Pb3O4 
415.954 (0.12) Pb2 Pb3O4 
431.936 (−28.9) Pb2O Pb3O4 
447.938 (−13.6) Pb2O2 Pb3O4 
463.931 (−17.1) Pb2O3 Pb3O4 
464.938 (−17.5) Pb2O3H Pb3O4 
482.907 (−10.8) Pb2ClO2 — 
623.947 (26.1) Pb3 Pb3O4 
639.939 (21.3) Pb3O Pb3O4 
655.932 (17.3) Pb3O2 Pb3O4 
671.930 (22.0) Pb3O3 Pb3O4 
687.929 (27.6) Pb3O4 Pb3O4 
688.937 (27.3) Pb3O4H Pb3O4 
706.904 (28.7) Pb3O3Cl — 
831.916 (10.8) Pb4 Pb3O4 
911.908 (28.9) Pb4O5 Pb3O4 
1039.903 (18.2) Pb5 Pb3O4 
1119.886 (24.9) Pb5O5 Pb3O4 
1135.888 (30.9) Pb5O6 Pb3O4 

Accession #:01925-01
■ Specimen: Minium—Kremer Pigmente ref.42500 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 4000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: Specific ion Pb4O4 is barely detected in minium 
Accession #:01925-01
■ Specimen: Minium—Kremer Pigmente ref.42500 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 4000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: Specific ion Pb4O4 is barely detected in minium 

Accession #:01925-01
■ Specimen: Minium—Kremer Pigmente ref.42500 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 4000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: Specific ion Pb4O4 is barely detected in minium 
Accession #:01925-01
■ Specimen: Minium—Kremer Pigmente ref.42500 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 4000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: Specific ion Pb4O4 is barely detected in minium 

Close modal

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01926-01 34.971 (31.9) Cl — 
207.970 (−34.3) Pb PbO 
223.966 (−28.2) PbO PbO 
239.960 (−31.2) PbO2 PbO 
415.955 (3.48) Pb2 PbO 
431.932 (−39.3) Pb2O PbO 
447.940 (−8.66) Pb2O2 PbO 
463.932 (−13.3) Pb2O3 PbO 
464.942 (−8.61) Pb2O3H PbO 
482.911 (−4.13) Pb2O2Cl — 
623.950 (30.5) Pb3 PbO 
639.931 (9.00) Pb3O PbO 
655.932 (17.2) Pb3O2 PbO 
671.922 (10.4) Pb3O3 PbO 
687.925 (21.3) Pb3O4 PbO 
688.937 (27.4) Pb3O4H PbO 
831.917 (12.1) Pb4 PbO 
911.903 (23.1) Pb4O5 PbO 
912.910 (22.5) Pb4O5H PbO 
Spectrum ID #Mass (Δm), DaSpeciesPeak Assignment
01926-01 34.971 (31.9) Cl — 
207.970 (−34.3) Pb PbO 
223.966 (−28.2) PbO PbO 
239.960 (−31.2) PbO2 PbO 
415.955 (3.48) Pb2 PbO 
431.932 (−39.3) Pb2O PbO 
447.940 (−8.66) Pb2O2 PbO 
463.932 (−13.3) Pb2O3 PbO 
464.942 (−8.61) Pb2O3H PbO 
482.911 (−4.13) Pb2O2Cl — 
623.950 (30.5) Pb3 PbO 
639.931 (9.00) Pb3O PbO 
655.932 (17.2) Pb3O2 PbO 
671.922 (10.4) Pb3O3 PbO 
687.925 (21.3) Pb3O4 PbO 
688.937 (27.4) Pb3O4H PbO 
831.917 (12.1) Pb4 PbO 
911.903 (23.1) Pb4O5 PbO 
912.910 (22.5) Pb4O5H PbO 

Accession #:01926-01
■ Specimen: Litharge—Kremer Pigmente ref. 43010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2300 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: Specific ion Pb4O4 is barely detected in litharge 
Accession #:01926-01
■ Specimen: Litharge—Kremer Pigmente ref. 43010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2300 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: Specific ion Pb4O4 is barely detected in litharge 

Accession #:01926-01
■ Specimen: Litharge—Kremer Pigmente ref. 43010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2300 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: Specific ion Pb4O4 is barely detected in litharge 
Accession #:01926-01
■ Specimen: Litharge—Kremer Pigmente ref. 43010 
■ Technique: SIMS 
Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolving Power: 2300 m/Δm 
Mass Resolving Power Determined at: 25 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration: O2, Cl, PbO2H, 206PbPbO3H, 206PbPb2O4H 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer: 0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun: LMIG 
Primary Ion Species: Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose: 4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate: 5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current: 0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current: 7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter: ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle: 45° 
Secondary Source Polarity: Negative 
Mass Range Minimum: 0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum: 3542 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected: Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time: 194 s 
Comment: Specific ion Pb4O4 is barely detected in litharge 

Close modal

This work was financially supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Grant No. ANR-2015-CE29-0007 DEFIMAGE). C.B. has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon Europe Research and Innovation Programme under Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 101108506. The authors thank Sven Kayser and Matthias Kleine-Boymann (IONTOF GmbH) for providing extended access to the software surfacelab 7.3 that allowed thorough processing of the data.

The authors have no conflicts to disclose.

Caroline Bouvier: Investigation (lead); Writing – original draft (lead). Sebastiaan Van Nuffel: Investigation (equal); Writing – review & editing (lead). Alain Brunelle: Conceptualization (lead); Supervision (equal); Writing – review & editing (equal).

The data that support the findings of this study are available within the article and its supplementary material.

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Supplementary Material