ToF-SIMS is increasingly used to analyze cultural heritage materials because it can simultaneously detect organic and inorganic materials while mapping them on a surface. The precise identification of a pigment in a specific layer of a painting or of remaining color on a statue can inform about the technique used or the time of manufacture as well as expose possible forgeries when anachronistic ingredients are identified. Reference spectra are required to confidently identify a given pigment using ToF-SIMS. This database focuses on eight lead-based historical inorganic pigments, manufactured following traditional recipes. Lead pigments have been widely used in painting until the late 19th century. Here, the positive polarity ToF-SIMS reference spectra using a Bi3+ primary ion species are presented.

  • Accession#: 01906, 01907, 01908, 01909, 01910, 01911, 01912, and 01913

  • Technique: SIMS

  • Specimen: Lead tin yellow I, Naples yellow, Lead white, Flake white 10μ, Flake white, Cerussite, Minium, and Litharge

  • Instrument: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV

  • Major Species in Spectra: O, H, Si, S, Al, C, Na, Pb, K, Sb, and Sn

  • Minor Species in Spectra: Hydrocarbon contamination

  • Published Spectra: 8

  • Spectral Category: Reference

ToF-SIMS imaging can detect a wide range of elements, so colored minerals can be identified and mapped, given that reference spectra are available for reliable assignment. Here, we provide a ToF-SIMS spectral database for eight lead-based inorganic pigments. Lead-based pigments have been commonly used in all painting techniques until the late 19th century and, therefore, are very likely to be found when analyzing a historical painting sample. In particular, the pigment generally referred to as “lead white” can have various compositions depending on the manufacturing process, and this paper compares a selection of them (namely #01908, #01909, #01910, and #01911). For each, a list of their fragmentation products is given.

The reference materials were supplied by specialized manufacturers selling pigments reproducing historical recipes as closely as possible, such as Kremer Pigmente GmbH, Masters Pigments, Laverdure, and Sennelier. Pigments were available as finely ground powder of variable particle size (between one and a few tens of μm) conditioned in glass-sealed vials. In paintings, pigment particles are not solubilized, so all references were analyzed without any preparation treatment. Natural and synthetic pigments may contain impurities, and specimen compositions described below are the major components as found on the material data sheets provided by the suppliers.

A stainless-steel spatula was cleaned with propan-2-ol, and the powder was directly deposited on a 1 × 1 mm2 piece of conductive double-sided tape (3 M Electrically Conductive Adhesive Transfer Tape 9703) already fixed to a 1 cm × 1 cm × 0.125 mm stainless-steel plate (17-7PH, Goodfellow Cambridge Limited, UK) fitting the dimensions of the sample holder. A hand press covered with clean aluminum foil was applied onto the powder to fix it to the tape. This allowed to operate in the analysis chamber under ultrahigh vacuum (10−8 to 10−9 hPa) while ensuring a flat surface.

All spectra were obtained on an IONTOF TOF SIMS IV equipped with a 25 keV bismuth liquid metal ion gun and an Argon gas cluster ion beam (GCIB). Before all analyses, a 500 × 500 μm2 surface was cleaned using 1500–2000 Ar clusters with a kinetic energy of 20 keV (sputter ion dose of 2 × 1015 ions/cm2). Analyses were then performed on a 250 × 250 μm2 area centered in this larger cleaned area, rastered over 128 × 128 pixels using the high current bunched mode. The primary ion dose (25 keV Bi3+) was 4.35 × 1011 ions/cm2. Surface potential was compensated.

All data were calibrated using the same set of peaks appearing in all spectra, namely, Na+ at m/z 22.99, Pb+ at m/z 207.98, Pb2+ at m/z 415.95, Pb2O+ at m/z 431.91, 206PbPb2O2+ at m/z 653.92, 206PbPb3O3+ at m/z 877.89, and 206PbPb4O4+ at m/z 1101.86. This calibration list allowed for a complete coverage of the mass range of interest, and the lead-containing calibration ions could easily be verified using their isotopic pattern. Pigments contain diverse metallic oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, and even hydrocarbons. They are found inside painting layers that are mostly organic materials. All these compounds do not follow the same ionization processes and have different ionization kinetics (Ref. 1). In this context, the choice of the calibration ions is a crucial step to ensure proper peak attribution. If the analytical question aims at identifying the nature of a pigment particle, then the calibration must include inorganic ions, such as the list above, spanning all the mass range of interest, and if possible of the same ion family as those of interest. However, if the analytical question focuses mainly on the identification of organic materials, the calibration must include known low-mass hydrocarbon ions (such as C2H3+, C3H5+, C4H7+, and C7H7+). The safest strategy when interpreting data from a painting cross section would be to rely on several calibration sets adapted to the ions of interest and that can be confidently defined independently of the sample's unknowns.

Figures and tables presented below contain the major peaks for positive polarity. Each pigment is uniquely identified thanks to an accession number, and they are grouped according to their composition and described in the following section. Their historical relevance is briefly described based on current literature (Refs. 2–6). The spectrum ID# refers to that number.

Specimen: Lead Tin Yellow I (Kremer Pigmente Ref. 10100)

CAS Registry #: 12143-43-0

Specimen Characteristics: Homogeneous; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder

Chemical Name: Lead stannate

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: Pb2SnO4

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: A light-yellow pigment that was widely used in oil painting from the Middle Ages to the dawn of the 19th century. Prohibited today because of its lead content.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto a conductive double-sided tape attached to the stainless-steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low-energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current of 2.35 A. Surface potential was corrected (sample dependent).

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: None

Specimen: Naples Yellow (Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43130)

CAS Registry #: 13510-89-9

Specimen Characteristics: Homogeneous; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder

Chemical Name: Lead antimonate

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: Pb2Sb2O7 [and Pb3(SbO4)2]

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: A yellow pigment used on Renaissance palettes, which is synthesized by heating a lead compound (oxide or nitrate) with an antimony compound (oxide, sulfide, or potassium antimonate). Particle size is in the micrometer range.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto a conductive double-sided tape attached to the stainless-steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low-energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current of 2.35 A. Surface potential was corrected (sample dependent).

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: None

Specimen: (Accession #01908) Lead white (Kremer Pigmente Ref. 46000), (Accession #01909) Flake white 10 μm (Masters Pigments Ref. 901010), (Accession #01910) Flake white (Sennelier PW No. 108), and (Accession #01911) Cerussite (Masters Pigments Ref. 951010)

CAS Registry #: (Accession #01908, 01911) 598-63-0 and (Accession #01909, 01910) 1319-46-6

Specimen Characteristics: Inhomogeneous; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder

Chemical Name: (Accession #01908, 01911) Lead (II) carbonate, synth. and (Accession #01909, 01910) Lead (II) carbonate, basic

Source: (Accession #01908) Kremer Pigmente GmbH, (Accession #01909, 01911) Masters Pigments, USA, and (Accession #01910) Sennelier, France

Specimen Composition: (Accession #01908, 01911) PbCO3 and (Accession #01909, 01910) 2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: The most widely used white pigment, progressively replaced during the beginning of the 20th century with newly available less toxic alternatives. A mixture of cerussite (lead carbonate) and hydrocerussite (basic lead carbonate) with proportions varying according to the manufacturing process, which can inform about the origin of the pigment. It is synthesized using lead strips, vinegar, CO2, and heat. The latter two are usually provided by a fermenting material. In the presence of acetic acid vapors, the lead surface corrodes to lead acetate, which is then converted to basic lead carbonate in the presence of CO2. This stable process has been used over centuries, its origins dating back to Ancient Greece and China. It was used as a cosmetic since ancient times.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto a conductive double-sided tape attached to the stainless-steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low-energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current of 2.35 A. Surface potential was corrected (sample dependent).

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: None

Specimen: Minium/Red Lead (Kremer Pigmente Ref. 42500)

CAS Registry #: 1314-41-6

Specimen Characteristics: Inhomogeneous; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder

Chemical Name: Lead tetraoxide

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: Pb3O4

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: This naturally occurring lead oxide has been synthesized since early times by heating lead carbonates. Its color approaches that of cinnabar, providing a cheaper alternative. Used since ancient Greek times as a rust inhibitor for metals, it remained its main use in the 20th century until it was banned in the 1990s.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto a conductive double-sided tape attached to the stainless-steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low-energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current of 2.35 A. Surface potential was corrected (sample dependent).

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: None

Specimen: Massicot, Litharge (Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43010)

CAS Registry #: 1317-36-8

Specimen Characteristics: Inhomogeneous; solid; unknown crystallinity; dielectric; inorganic compound; powder

Chemical Name: Lead (II) oxide

Source: Kremer Pigmente GmbH

Specimen Composition: PbO

Form: Ground pigment powder

History and Significance: Litharge and massicot are lead monoxide polymorphs with the formula PbO, respectively, red and yellow-orange in appearance. They are both formed by heating lead or lead white. Litharge plays a key role in the preparation of drying oil for painting: when mixed, it accelerates the polymerization of the film.

As Received Condition: Ground pigment powders were stored in a sealed glass vial in a wooden box, protected from daylight. Stored at room temperature.

Analyzed Region: Areas of 250 × 250 μm2

Ex Situ Preparation/Mounting: Powder was deposited and pressed onto a conductive double-sided tape attached to the stainless-steel 1 × 1 cm2 plates. The resulting deposit of powder had a flat surface and was fixed in a suitable way for the vacuum chamber. The plate was directly mounted on a “backmount” sample holder (IONTOF).

In Situ Preparation: None

Charge Control Conditions and Procedures: A low-energy electron flood gun was used. Bias voltage between 20 and −30 V. Flood gun filament current of 2.35 A. Surface potential was corrected (sample dependent).

Temp. During Analysis: 300 K

Pressure During Analysis: Between 1 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−6Pa

Pre-analysis Beam Exposure: None

Manufacturer and Model: IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV

Analyzer Type: Time-of-flight

Sample Rotation: No

Rotation Rate: 0 rpm

Oxygen Flood Source: None

Oxygen Flood Pressure: N/A

Other Flood Source: None

Other Flood Pressure: N/A

Unique Instrument Features Used: None.

Energy Acceptance Window: 20 eV

Post-acceleration Voltage: 10 000 eV

Sample Bias: 10–20 eV

Specimen Normal-to-analyzer (Θe):

Ion Source 1 of 2

Purpose of this Ion Source: Analysis beam

Ion Source Manufacturer: IONTOF GmbH

Ion Source Model: Liquid metal ion gun (LMIG) with bismuth cluster (25 keV)

Beam Mass Filter: Yes

Beam Species and Charge State: Bi3+

Beam Gating Used: Double pulsed + Bunched

Additional Beam Comments: None

Beam Voltage: 25 000 eV

Net Beam Voltage (impact voltage): 25 000 eV

Ion Pulse Width: 0.8–1.2 ns

Ion Pulse Rate: 5–10 kHz

DC Beam Current: ∼10 nA

Pulsed Beam Current: ∼0.0004 nA

Current Measurement Method: Faraday cup

Beam Diameter: ∼2 μm

Beam Raster Size: 250 × 250 μm2

Raster Pixel Dimensions: 128 × 128

Beam Incident Angle: 45°

Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45°

Ion Source 2 of 2

Purpose of this Ion Source: Sputtering beam

Ion Source Manufacturer: IONTOF GmbH

Ion Source Model: Argon gas cluster ion beam (GCIB)

Beam Mass Filter: Yes

Beam Species and Charge State: Arn+ with n = 1500–2000

Beam Gating Used: Wien filter

Additional Beam Comments: Used as sputter gun, not analysis mode.

Beam Voltage: 20 000 eV

Net Beam Voltage (impact voltage): 20 000 eV

Ion Pulse Width: N/A

Ion Pulse Rate: N/A

DC Beam Current: ∼10 nA

Pulsed Beam Current: N/A

Current Measurement Method: Faraday cup

Beam Diameter: ∼50 μm

Beam Raster Size: 500 × 500 μm2

Raster Pixel Dimensions: N/A

Beam Incident Angle: 45°

Source-to-Analyzer Angle: 45°

SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE

Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 10100—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01906-01   38.964 (19.1)  K+  Impurity 
  119.898 (−27.2)  Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  136.906 (8.38)  SnOH+  Pb2SnO4 
  246.967 (25.9)  PbNaO+  Impurity 
  255.796 (−12.3)  Sn2O+  Pb2SnO4 
  271.802 (−30.2)  Sn2O2 Pb2SnO4 
  343.873 (0.13)  PbOSn+  Pb2SnO4 
  359.877 (23.5)  PbO2Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  479.793 (46.3)  PbO2Sn2+  Pb2SnO4 
  495.774 (17.1)  PbO3Sn2+  Pb2SnO4 
  567.825 (−34.5)  Pb2O2Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  583.835 (−8.35)  Pb2O3Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  703.743 (2.21)  Pb2O3Sn2+  Pb2SnO4 
  719.750 (17.8)  Pb2O4Sn2+  Pb2SnO4 
  791.814 (−3.15)  Pb3O3Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  807.823 (14.2)  Pb3O4Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  1015.791 (2.59)  Pb4O4Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  1031.782 (−0.63)  Pb4O5Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 10100—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01906-01   38.964 (19.1)  K+  Impurity 
  119.898 (−27.2)  Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  136.906 (8.38)  SnOH+  Pb2SnO4 
  246.967 (25.9)  PbNaO+  Impurity 
  255.796 (−12.3)  Sn2O+  Pb2SnO4 
  271.802 (−30.2)  Sn2O2 Pb2SnO4 
  343.873 (0.13)  PbOSn+  Pb2SnO4 
  359.877 (23.5)  PbO2Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  479.793 (46.3)  PbO2Sn2+  Pb2SnO4 
  495.774 (17.1)  PbO3Sn2+  Pb2SnO4 
  567.825 (−34.5)  Pb2O2Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  583.835 (−8.35)  Pb2O3Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  703.743 (2.21)  Pb2O3Sn2+  Pb2SnO4 
  719.750 (17.8)  Pb2O4Sn2+  Pb2SnO4 
  791.814 (−3.15)  Pb3O3Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  807.823 (14.2)  Pb3O4Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  1015.791 (2.59)  Pb4O4Sn+  Pb2SnO4 
  1031.782 (−0.63)  Pb4O5Sn+  Pb2SnO4 

Accession #: 01906-01
■ Specimen:   Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 10100 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current:   14.4 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   207 s 
Comment:   Distinctive isotopic pattern 
Accession #: 01906-01
■ Specimen:   Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 10100 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current:   14.4 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   207 s 
Comment:   Distinctive isotopic pattern 

Accession #: 01906-01
■ Specimen:   Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 10100 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current:   14.4 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   207 s 
Comment:   Distinctive isotopic pattern 
Accession #: 01906-01
■ Specimen:   Lead Tin Yellow I—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 10100 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current:   14.4 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   207 s 
Comment:   Distinctive isotopic pattern 

Close modal
Naples Yellow—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43130—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01907-01   26.982 (23.4)  Al+  Impurity, likely from the manufacturing process 
  27.976 (−32.2)  Si+  Impurity, likely from the manufacturing process 
  38.965 (36.8)  K+  Impurity, likely from the manufacturing process 
  120.900 (−25.5)  Sb+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  136.901 (22.6)  SbO+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  155.895 (−11.0)  K2Na2O2+  Impurity, likely from the manufacturing process 
  272.802 (18.5)  Sb2O2+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  332.779 (33.2)  Sb2AlO4+  — 
  344.883 (24.1)  PbSbO+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  360.881 (31.4)  PbSbO2+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  490.954 (−14.8)  Pb2OC2H3O2+  — 
  556.740 (−0.48)  PbSb2AlO5+  — 
  584.855 (23.9)  Pb2SbO3+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  686.808 (27.4)  Pb2SbAl2O6+  — 
  714.920 (−18.0)  Pb3O2C2H3O2+  — 
  808.828 (18.2)  Pb3SbO4+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  938.892 (−12.6)  Pb4O3C2H3O2+  — 
  1120.893 (24.6)  Pb5O5H+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
Naples Yellow—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43130—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01907-01   26.982 (23.4)  Al+  Impurity, likely from the manufacturing process 
  27.976 (−32.2)  Si+  Impurity, likely from the manufacturing process 
  38.965 (36.8)  K+  Impurity, likely from the manufacturing process 
  120.900 (−25.5)  Sb+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  136.901 (22.6)  SbO+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  155.895 (−11.0)  K2Na2O2+  Impurity, likely from the manufacturing process 
  272.802 (18.5)  Sb2O2+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  332.779 (33.2)  Sb2AlO4+  — 
  344.883 (24.1)  PbSbO+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  360.881 (31.4)  PbSbO2+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  490.954 (−14.8)  Pb2OC2H3O2+  — 
  556.740 (−0.48)  PbSb2AlO5+  — 
  584.855 (23.9)  Pb2SbO3+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  686.808 (27.4)  Pb2SbAl2O6+  — 
  714.920 (−18.0)  Pb3O2C2H3O2+  — 
  808.828 (18.2)  Pb3SbO4+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 
  938.892 (−12.6)  Pb4O3C2H3O2+  — 
  1120.893 (24.6)  Pb5O5H+  Pb2Sb2O7/Pb3(SbO4)2 

Accession #: 01907-01
■ Specimen:   Naples Yellow—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43130 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current:   14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   210 s 
Comment:   Distinctive isotopic pattern, allowing to discriminate between SnOH+ (theoretical mass 136.904) and SbO+ (theoretical mass 136.898) 
Accession #: 01907-01
■ Specimen:   Naples Yellow—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43130 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current:   14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   210 s 
Comment:   Distinctive isotopic pattern, allowing to discriminate between SnOH+ (theoretical mass 136.904) and SbO+ (theoretical mass 136.898) 

Accession #: 01907-01
■ Specimen:   Naples Yellow—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43130 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current:   14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   210 s 
Comment:   Distinctive isotopic pattern, allowing to discriminate between SnOH+ (theoretical mass 136.904) and SbO+ (theoretical mass 136.898) 
Accession #: 01907-01
■ Specimen:   Naples Yellow—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43130 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2600 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.34 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 21 nA 
DC Beam Current:   14.6 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   210 s 
Comment:   Distinctive isotopic pattern, allowing to discriminate between SnOH+ (theoretical mass 136.904) and SbO+ (theoretical mass 136.898) 

Close modal
Lead White—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 46000—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01908-01   23.984 (−3.22)  Mg+  — 
  38.965 (38.5)  K+  — 
  39.962 (−9.51)  Ca+  — 
  56.966 (17.5)  CaOH+  — 
  91.057 (25.0)  C7H7+  — 
  105.035 (15.2)  C6H5CO+  Phthalate contamination  
  151.080 (28.3)  C7H7(CH2O)2+  — 
  223.972 (4.36)  PbO+  PbCO3 
  246.964 (12.5)  PbNaO+  — 
  263.940 (23.6)  PbCaO+  — 
  279.931 (7.79)  PbCaO2+  — 
  447.960 (38.0)  Pb2O2+  PbCO3 
  471.961 (39.1)  Pb2(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  487.933 (−10.2)  Pb2O(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  503.914 (−36.4)  Pb2O2(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  623.933 (5.53)  Pb3+  PbCO3 
  639.909 (−23.6)  Pb3O+  PbCO3 
  671.914 (−0.23)  Pb3O3+  PbCO3 
  695.898 (−23.7)  Pb3O(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  711.894 (−21.4)  Pb3O2(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  728.902 (−13.2)  Pb3O3C2O2H+  PbCO3 
  919.865 (−22.1)  Pb4O2(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  935.869 (−11.9)  Pb4O3(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  1039.876 (−6.42)  Pb5+  PbCO3 
  1120.856 (−8.22)  Pb5O5H+  PbCO3 
  1327.827 (−4.87)  Pb6O5+  PbCO3 
  1344.832 (−3.10)  Pb6O6H+  PbCO3 
Lead White—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 46000—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01908-01   23.984 (−3.22)  Mg+  — 
  38.965 (38.5)  K+  — 
  39.962 (−9.51)  Ca+  — 
  56.966 (17.5)  CaOH+  — 
  91.057 (25.0)  C7H7+  — 
  105.035 (15.2)  C6H5CO+  Phthalate contamination  
  151.080 (28.3)  C7H7(CH2O)2+  — 
  223.972 (4.36)  PbO+  PbCO3 
  246.964 (12.5)  PbNaO+  — 
  263.940 (23.6)  PbCaO+  — 
  279.931 (7.79)  PbCaO2+  — 
  447.960 (38.0)  Pb2O2+  PbCO3 
  471.961 (39.1)  Pb2(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  487.933 (−10.2)  Pb2O(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  503.914 (−36.4)  Pb2O2(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  623.933 (5.53)  Pb3+  PbCO3 
  639.909 (−23.6)  Pb3O+  PbCO3 
  671.914 (−0.23)  Pb3O3+  PbCO3 
  695.898 (−23.7)  Pb3O(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  711.894 (−21.4)  Pb3O2(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  728.902 (−13.2)  Pb3O3C2O2H+  PbCO3 
  919.865 (−22.1)  Pb4O2(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  935.869 (−11.9)  Pb4O3(CO)2+  PbCO3 
  1039.876 (−6.42)  Pb5+  PbCO3 
  1120.856 (−8.22)  Pb5O5H+  PbCO3 
  1327.827 (−4.87)  Pb6O5+  PbCO3 
  1344.832 (−3.10)  Pb6O6H+  PbCO3 

Accession #: 01908-01
■ Specimen:   Lead White—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 46000 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   4000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current:   15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   250 s 
Comment:   Assignments were refined using isotopic patterns. 
Accession #: 01908-01
■ Specimen:   Lead White—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 46000 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   4000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current:   15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   250 s 
Comment:   Assignments were refined using isotopic patterns. 

Accession #: 01908-01
■ Specimen:   Lead White—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 46000 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   4000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current:   15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   250 s 
Comment:   Assignments were refined using isotopic patterns. 
Accession #: 01908-01
■ Specimen:   Lead White—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 46000 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   4000 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 16 nA 
DC Beam Current:   15.7 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   250 s 
Comment:   Assignments were refined using isotopic patterns. 

Close modal
Flake White 10μ—Masters Pigments Ref. 901010—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01909-01   38.963 (2.82)  K+  — 
  39.960 (−58.9)  Ca+  — 
  56.963 (−26.3)  CaOH+  — 
  61.975 (22.7)  Na2O+  — 
  105.037 (31.7)  C6H5CO+  Phthalate contamination  
  223.976 (22.9)  PbO+  2PbCO3.Pb(OH)2 
  246.974 (54.7)  PbNaO+  — 
  263.947 (48.9)  PbCaO+  — 
  267.006 (62.5)  C2H3O2Pb+  From lead acetate 
  279.938 (34.2)  PbCaO2+  — 
  322.951 (33.3)  PbNaO2CO3+  — 
  336.895 (−38.7)  PbS2O4H+  — 
  447.950 (16.3)  Pb2O2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  470.942 (−61.1)  Pb2C3H3O+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  471.941 (−3.48)  Pb2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  487.934 (−7.58)  Pb2O(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  490.965 (8.80)  Pb2OC2H3O2+  From lead acetate 
  503.903 (−59.1)  Pb2O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  560.835 (−47.3)  Pb2S3O3H+  — 
  623.922 (−12.5)  Pb3+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  639.920 (−6.39)  Pb3O+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  671.920 (9.20)  Pb3O3+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  692.906 (10.2)  Pb3Na3+  — 
  694.914 (−41.9)  Pb3OC3H3O+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  695.907 (−10.4)  Pb3O(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  711.901 (−11.3)  Pb3O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  714.938 (7.74)  Pb3O2C2H3O2+  From lead acetate 
  728.876 (−48.8)  Pb3O3(CO)2H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  767.842 (14.8)  Pb3S3O3+  — 
  770.874 (−12.3)  Pb3O2NaO2CO3+  — 
  784.822 (−13.7)  Pb3OS3O3H+  — 
  895.896 (11.4)  Pb4O4+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  919.879 (−6.78)  Pb4O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  935.893 (13.5)  Pb4O3(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  938.923 (19.8)  Pb4O3C2H3O2+  From lead acetate 
  952.844 (−41.6)  Pb4O4(CO)2H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1119.877 (17.9)  Pb5O5+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1120.876 (10.1)  Pb5O5H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1327.849 (11.5)  Pb6O5+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1343.857 (20.7)  Pb6O6+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1344.862 (19.4)  Pb6O6H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
Flake White 10μ—Masters Pigments Ref. 901010—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01909-01   38.963 (2.82)  K+  — 
  39.960 (−58.9)  Ca+  — 
  56.963 (−26.3)  CaOH+  — 
  61.975 (22.7)  Na2O+  — 
  105.037 (31.7)  C6H5CO+  Phthalate contamination  
  223.976 (22.9)  PbO+  2PbCO3.Pb(OH)2 
  246.974 (54.7)  PbNaO+  — 
  263.947 (48.9)  PbCaO+  — 
  267.006 (62.5)  C2H3O2Pb+  From lead acetate 
  279.938 (34.2)  PbCaO2+  — 
  322.951 (33.3)  PbNaO2CO3+  — 
  336.895 (−38.7)  PbS2O4H+  — 
  447.950 (16.3)  Pb2O2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  470.942 (−61.1)  Pb2C3H3O+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  471.941 (−3.48)  Pb2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  487.934 (−7.58)  Pb2O(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  490.965 (8.80)  Pb2OC2H3O2+  From lead acetate 
  503.903 (−59.1)  Pb2O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  560.835 (−47.3)  Pb2S3O3H+  — 
  623.922 (−12.5)  Pb3+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  639.920 (−6.39)  Pb3O+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  671.920 (9.20)  Pb3O3+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  692.906 (10.2)  Pb3Na3+  — 
  694.914 (−41.9)  Pb3OC3H3O+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  695.907 (−10.4)  Pb3O(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  711.901 (−11.3)  Pb3O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  714.938 (7.74)  Pb3O2C2H3O2+  From lead acetate 
  728.876 (−48.8)  Pb3O3(CO)2H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  767.842 (14.8)  Pb3S3O3+  — 
  770.874 (−12.3)  Pb3O2NaO2CO3+  — 
  784.822 (−13.7)  Pb3OS3O3H+  — 
  895.896 (11.4)  Pb4O4+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  919.879 (−6.78)  Pb4O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  935.893 (13.5)  Pb4O3(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  938.923 (19.8)  Pb4O3C2H3O2+  From lead acetate 
  952.844 (−41.6)  Pb4O4(CO)2H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1119.877 (17.9)  Pb5O5+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1120.876 (10.1)  Pb5O5H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1327.849 (11.5)  Pb6O5+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1343.857 (20.7)  Pb6O6+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1344.862 (19.4)  Pb6O6H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 

Accession #: 01909-01
■ Specimen:   Flake White 10μ—Masters Pigments Ref. 901010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   4400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current:   1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   1995 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   161 s 
Comment:   Assignments were refined using isotopic patterns. 
Accession #: 01909-01
■ Specimen:   Flake White 10μ—Masters Pigments Ref. 901010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   4400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current:   1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   1995 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   161 s 
Comment:   Assignments were refined using isotopic patterns. 

Accession #: 01909-01
■ Specimen:   Flake White 10μ—Masters Pigments Ref. 901010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   4400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current:   1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   1995 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   161 s 
Comment:   Assignments were refined using isotopic patterns. 
Accession #: 01909-01
■ Specimen:   Flake White 10μ—Masters Pigments Ref. 901010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   4400 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 38 nA 
DC Beam Current:   1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   1995 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   161 s 
Comment:   Assignments were refined using isotopic patterns. 

Close modal
Flake White—Sennelier PW No. 108— Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01910-01   38.965 (37.1)  K+  — 
  246.974 (54.8)  PbNaO+  — 
  264.979 (20.1)  PbC2O2H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  280.952 (−58.2)  PbC2O3H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  304.949 (43.6)  PbSO4H+  — 
  320.928 (−8.09)  PbSO5H+  — 
  336.898 (−28.9)  PbS2O4H+  — 
  470.941 (−63.6)  Pb2C3H3O+  2PbCO3.Pb(OH)2 
  471.927 (−32.2)  Pb2(CO)2+  – 
  487.926 (−22.8)  Pb2O(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  503.910 (−44.4)  Pb2O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  528.927 (36.7)  Pb2O2SO3H+  — 
  544.890 (−22.6)  Pb2O3SO3H+  — 
  560.841 (−36.8)  Pb2S3O3H+  — 
  639.917 (−12.0)  Pb3O+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  692.893 (−8.49)  Pb3Na3+  — 
  694.901 (−59.7)  Pb3OC3H3O+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  695.889 (−35.8)  Pb3O(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  711.894 (−21.1)  Pb3O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  728.886 (−35.4)  Pb3O3(CO)2H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  752.878 (−1.19)  Pb3O3SO3H+  — 
  767.842 (15.6)  Pb3S3O3+  — 
  784.827 (−7.91)  Pb3OS3O3H+  — 
  919.868 (−19.8)  Pb4O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  935.859 (−23.2)  Pb4O3(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  952.846 (−39.0)  Pb4O4(CO)2H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1120.873 (7.40)  Pb5O5H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1327.834 (−0.10)  Pb6O5+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1344.856 (14.8)  Pb6O6H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
Flake White—Sennelier PW No. 108— Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01910-01   38.965 (37.1)  K+  — 
  246.974 (54.8)  PbNaO+  — 
  264.979 (20.1)  PbC2O2H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  280.952 (−58.2)  PbC2O3H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  304.949 (43.6)  PbSO4H+  — 
  320.928 (−8.09)  PbSO5H+  — 
  336.898 (−28.9)  PbS2O4H+  — 
  470.941 (−63.6)  Pb2C3H3O+  2PbCO3.Pb(OH)2 
  471.927 (−32.2)  Pb2(CO)2+  – 
  487.926 (−22.8)  Pb2O(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  503.910 (−44.4)  Pb2O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  528.927 (36.7)  Pb2O2SO3H+  — 
  544.890 (−22.6)  Pb2O3SO3H+  — 
  560.841 (−36.8)  Pb2S3O3H+  — 
  639.917 (−12.0)  Pb3O+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  692.893 (−8.49)  Pb3Na3+  — 
  694.901 (−59.7)  Pb3OC3H3O+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  695.889 (−35.8)  Pb3O(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  711.894 (−21.1)  Pb3O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  728.886 (−35.4)  Pb3O3(CO)2H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  752.878 (−1.19)  Pb3O3SO3H+  — 
  767.842 (15.6)  Pb3S3O3+  — 
  784.827 (−7.91)  Pb3OS3O3H+  — 
  919.868 (−19.8)  Pb4O2(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  935.859 (−23.2)  Pb4O3(CO)2+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  952.846 (−39.0)  Pb4O4(CO)2H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1120.873 (7.40)  Pb5O5H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1327.834 (−0.10)  Pb6O5+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 
  1344.856 (14.8)  Pb6O6H+  2PbCO3⋅Pb(OH)2 

Accession #: 01910-01
■ Specimen:   Flake White—Sennelier PW No. 108 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.00038 nA 
DC Beam Current:   1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   1995 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   161 s 
Comment:   None 
Accession #: 01910-01
■ Specimen:   Flake White—Sennelier PW No. 108 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.00038 nA 
DC Beam Current:   1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   1995 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   161 s 
Comment:   None 

Accession #: 01910-01
■ Specimen:   Flake White—Sennelier PW No. 108 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.00038 nA 
DC Beam Current:   1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   1995 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   161 s 
Comment:   None 
Accession #: 01910-01
■ Specimen:   Flake White—Sennelier PW No. 108 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3500 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.37 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   8.3 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.00038 nA 
DC Beam Current:   1.9 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   200 × 200 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   1995 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   161 s 
Comment:   None 

Close modal
Cerussite—Masters Pigments Ref. 951010—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01911-01   26.981 (0.75)  Al+  — 
  27.975 (−40.3)  Si+  — 
  38.965 (57.4)  K+  — 
  87.939 (13.3)  KSOH+  — 
  105.037 (37.2)  C6H5CO+  Phthalate contamination  
  151.080 (31.4)  C7H7(CH2O)2+  — 
  223.978 (30.4)  PbO+  PbCO3 
  246.968 (28.2)  PbONa+  — 
  251.958 (−33.2)  PbCO2+  PbCO3 
  262.944 (35.3)  PbOK+  — 
  284.965 (6.59)  PbOHCO3+  PbCO3 
  447.957 (31.9)  Pb2O2+  PbCO3 
  466.935 (39.8)  Pb2ClO+  — 
  491.950 (36.3)  Pb2OCO3+  PbCO3 
  508.951 (30.3)  Pb2O2CO3H+  PbCO3 
  550.890 (38.9)  Pb2KSO4+  — 
  568.903 (−28.9)  Pb2O2C2O6H+  PbCO3 
  623.933 (6.06)  Pb3+  PbCO3 
  639.914 (−16.8)  Pb3O+  PbCO3 
  671.922 (11.9)  Pb3O3+  PbCO3 
  715.923 (26.3)  Pb3O2CO3+  PbCO3 
  732.925 (25.2)  Pb3O3HCO3+  PbCO3 
  775.922 (42.9)  Pb3O2C2O6+  PbCO3 
  895.898 (13.6)  Pb4O4+  PbCO3 
  939.888 (13.8)  Pb4O4CO2+  PbCO3 
  1327.847 (10.2)  Pb6O5+  PbCO3 
Cerussite—Masters Pigments Ref. 951010—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01911-01   26.981 (0.75)  Al+  — 
  27.975 (−40.3)  Si+  — 
  38.965 (57.4)  K+  — 
  87.939 (13.3)  KSOH+  — 
  105.037 (37.2)  C6H5CO+  Phthalate contamination  
  151.080 (31.4)  C7H7(CH2O)2+  — 
  223.978 (30.4)  PbO+  PbCO3 
  246.968 (28.2)  PbONa+  — 
  251.958 (−33.2)  PbCO2+  PbCO3 
  262.944 (35.3)  PbOK+  — 
  284.965 (6.59)  PbOHCO3+  PbCO3 
  447.957 (31.9)  Pb2O2+  PbCO3 
  466.935 (39.8)  Pb2ClO+  — 
  491.950 (36.3)  Pb2OCO3+  PbCO3 
  508.951 (30.3)  Pb2O2CO3H+  PbCO3 
  550.890 (38.9)  Pb2KSO4+  — 
  568.903 (−28.9)  Pb2O2C2O6H+  PbCO3 
  623.933 (6.06)  Pb3+  PbCO3 
  639.914 (−16.8)  Pb3O+  PbCO3 
  671.922 (11.9)  Pb3O3+  PbCO3 
  715.923 (26.3)  Pb3O2CO3+  PbCO3 
  732.925 (25.2)  Pb3O3HCO3+  PbCO3 
  775.922 (42.9)  Pb3O2C2O6+  PbCO3 
  895.898 (13.6)  Pb4O4+  PbCO3 
  939.888 (13.8)  Pb4O4CO2+  PbCO3 
  1327.847 (10.2)  Pb6O5+  PbCO3 

Accession #: 01911-01
■ Specimen:   Cerussite—Masters Pigments Ref. 951010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2300 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   28 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 
Accession #: 01911-01
■ Specimen:   Cerussite—Masters Pigments Ref. 951010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2300 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   28 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 

Accession #: 01911-01
■ Specimen:   Cerussite—Masters Pigments Ref. 951010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2300 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   28 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 
Accession #: 01911-01
■ Specimen:   Cerussite—Masters Pigments Ref. 951010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2300 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   28 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 

Close modal
Minium—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 42500—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01912-01   38.965 (51.4)  K+  — 
  55.058 (58.6)  C4H7+  — 
  91.058 (37.2)  C7H7+  — 
  105.037 (37.2)  C6H5CO+  Phthalate contamination  
  151.079 (26.4)  C7H7(CH2O)2+  — 
  223.973 (10.8)  PbO+  Pb3O4 
  447.961 (40.5)  Pb2O2+  Pb3O4 
  623.928 (−3.03)  Pb3+  Pb3O4 
  639.924 (−0.56)  Pb3O+  Pb3O4 
  671.921 (10.4)  Pb3O3+  Pb3O4 
  895.901 (16.8)  Pb4O4+  Pb3O4 
  1119.892 (31.1)  Pb5O5+  Pb3O4 
  1120.903 (33.6)  Pb5O5H+  Pb3O4 
  1327.837 (2.69)  Pb6O5+  Pb3O4 
Minium—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 42500—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01912-01   38.965 (51.4)  K+  — 
  55.058 (58.6)  C4H7+  — 
  91.058 (37.2)  C7H7+  — 
  105.037 (37.2)  C6H5CO+  Phthalate contamination  
  151.079 (26.4)  C7H7(CH2O)2+  — 
  223.973 (10.8)  PbO+  Pb3O4 
  447.961 (40.5)  Pb2O2+  Pb3O4 
  623.928 (−3.03)  Pb3+  Pb3O4 
  639.924 (−0.56)  Pb3O+  Pb3O4 
  671.921 (10.4)  Pb3O3+  Pb3O4 
  895.901 (16.8)  Pb4O4+  Pb3O4 
  1119.892 (31.1)  Pb5O5+  Pb3O4 
  1120.903 (33.6)  Pb5O5H+  Pb3O4 
  1327.837 (2.69)  Pb6O5+  Pb3O4 

Accession #: 01912-01
■ Specimen:   Minium—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 42500 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 
Accession #: 01912-01
■ Specimen:   Minium—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 42500 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 

Accession #: 01912-01
■ Specimen:   Minium—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 42500 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 
Accession #: 01912-01
■ Specimen:   Minium—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 42500 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   3900 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 

Close modal
Litharge—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43010—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01913-01   151.083 (56.4)  C7H7(CH2O)2+  — 
  223.973 (10.4)  PbO+  PbO 
  447.957 (33.2)  Pb2O2+  PbO 
  623.937 (12.8)  Pb3+  PbO 
  639.932 (11.8)  Pb3O+  PbO 
  671.939 (37.1)  Pb3O3+  PbO 
  1039.868 (−14.5)  Pb5+  PbO 
  1120.876 (9.39)  Pb5O5H+  PbO 
Litharge—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43010—Positive polarity
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
01913-01   151.083 (56.4)  C7H7(CH2O)2+  — 
  223.973 (10.4)  PbO+  PbO 
  447.957 (33.2)  Pb2O2+  PbO 
  623.937 (12.8)  Pb3+  PbO 
  639.932 (11.8)  Pb3O+  PbO 
  671.939 (37.1)  Pb3O3+  PbO 
  1039.868 (−14.5)  Pb5+  PbO 
  1120.876 (9.39)  Pb5O5H+  PbO 

Accession #: 01913-01
■ Specimen:   Litharge—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 
Accession #: 01913-01
■ Specimen:   Litharge—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 

Accession #: 01913-01
■ Specimen:   Litharge—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 
Accession #: 01913-01
■ Specimen:   Litharge—Kremer Pigmente Ref. 43010 
■ Technique:   SIMS 
Instrument:   IONTOF, TOF SIMS IV 
Analyzer Type:   Time-of-flight 
Analyzer Mass Resolution:   2100 m/Δm 
Mass Resolution Determined at:   27 Da 
Species Used for Mass Calibration:   Na+, Pb+, Pb2+, Pb2O+, 206PbPb2O2+, 206PbPb3O3+, and 206PbPb4O4+ 
Specimen Normal-to-Analyzer:   0° 
Source-to-Analyzer Angle:   45° 
Primary Beam Ion Gun:   LMIG 
Primary Ion Species:   Bi3+ 
Primary Ion Dose:   4.35 × 1011 ion/cm2 
Primary Ion Pulse Width:   0.8–1.2 ns 
Primary Ion Pulse Rate:   5 kHz 
Net Beam Voltage:   25 000 eV 
Pulsed Beam Current:   0.000 23 nA 
DC Beam Current:   7.2 nA 
Beam Diameter:   ∼2 μ
Beam Raster Size:   250 × 250 μm2 
Beam Incident Angle:   45° 
Secondary Source Polarity:   Positive 
Mass Range Minimum:   0 Da 
Mass Range Maximum:   3545 Da 
Spectrum Dead Time Corrected:   Yes 
Total Spectral Acquisition Time:   194 s 
Comment:   None 

Close modal
SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE (peaks appearing in all spectra)
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
All   22.99 (16.6)  Na+  — 
  207.98 (9.1)  Pb+  All lead-containing pigments 
  224.98 (18.1)  PbOH+  All lead-containing pigments 
  415.95 (16.3)  Pb2+  All lead-containing pigments 
  431.96 (19.9)  Pb2O+  All lead-containing pigments 
  448.97 (36.2)  Pb2O2H+  All lead-containing pigments 
  655.92 (4.2)  Pb3O2+  All lead-containing pigments 
  672.93 (9.3)  Pb3O3H+  All lead-containing pigments 
  879.89 (8.1)  Pb4O3+  All lead-containing pigments 
  896.89 (17.6)  Pb4O4H+  All lead-containing pigments 
  1103.87 (3.1)  Pb5O4+  All lead-containing pigments 
SPECTRAL FEATURES TABLE (peaks appearing in all spectra)
Spectrum ID # Mass (Δm), Da Species Peak Assignment
All   22.99 (16.6)  Na+  — 
  207.98 (9.1)  Pb+  All lead-containing pigments 
  224.98 (18.1)  PbOH+  All lead-containing pigments 
  415.95 (16.3)  Pb2+  All lead-containing pigments 
  431.96 (19.9)  Pb2O+  All lead-containing pigments 
  448.97 (36.2)  Pb2O2H+  All lead-containing pigments 
  655.92 (4.2)  Pb3O2+  All lead-containing pigments 
  672.93 (9.3)  Pb3O3H+  All lead-containing pigments 
  879.89 (8.1)  Pb4O3+  All lead-containing pigments 
  896.89 (17.6)  Pb4O4H+  All lead-containing pigments 
  1103.87 (3.1)  Pb5O4+  All lead-containing pigments 

(Mean absolute deviation values are given for the mass deviations.)

This work was financially supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Grant No. ANR-2015-CE29-0007 DEFIMAGE). C.B. has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon Europe Research and Innovation Programme under the Marie Skłodowska–Curie Grant Agreement No. 101108506. The authors thank Sven Kayser and Matthias Kleine-Boymann (IONTOF GmbH) for providing extended access to the software SurfaceLab 7.3 that allowed thorough processing of the data.

The authors have no conflicts to disclose.

A.B. conceived and designed the analysis. S.V.N. and C.B. collected data. C.B. performed the analysis. All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript.

Caroline Bouvier: Investigation (lead); Writing – original draft (lead). Sebastiaan Van Nuffel: Investigation (equal); Writing – review & editing (lead). Alain Brunelle: Conceptualization (lead); Supervision (equal); Writing – review & editing (equal).

The data that support the findings of this study are available within the article and its supplementary material.

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Supplementary Material