Copper metal was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using a K-Alpha instrument from Thermo Scientific that employed an Al K-alpha x-ray source (1486.6 eV). The sample was the copper standard on the instrument sample stage that was sputtered with Ar+ to remove its oxide layer and hydrocarbon contamination. Shown in this work are the survey spectrum and high-resolution Cu 2p, Cu L3M45M45, Cu 3s, Cu 3p, O 1s, C 1s, and Ar 2p narrow scans. Narrow and survey scans were collected at 60 and 200 eV pass energy, respectively.

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