Bulk germanium was analyzed using high-resolution high-energy x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The HAXPES spectra of germanium obtained using monochromatic Cr Kα radiation at 5414.8 eV include survey scan and high-resolution spectra of Ge 2s, Ge 2p3/2, Ge 3s, Ge 3p, and Ge 3d.

1.
See https://www.ulvac-phi.com/en/products/xps/quantes/ for a description of the Quantes spectrometer.
2.
See https://www.kratos.com/products/axis-supra-xps-surface-analysis-instrument for a description of the AXIS Ultra spectrometer.
3.
See https://scientaomicron.com/en/products-solutions/electron-spectroscopy/HAXPES-Lab for a description of the HAXPES-Lab spectrometer.
4.
C.
Zborowski
,
T.
Conard
,
A.
Vanleenhove
,
I.
Hoflijk
, and
I.
Vaesen
,
Surf. Sci. Spectra
29
,
024005
(
2022
).

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