Gadolinium was analyzed using high-resolution high energy x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The HAXPES spectra of gadolinium obtained using monochromatic Cr Kα radiation at 5414.8 eV include survey scan and high-resolution spectra of Gd 3s, Gd 3p, Gd 3d, Gd 4s, Gd 4p, and Gd 4d.

1.
See https://www.ulvac-phi.com/en/products/xps/quantes/ for a description of the Quantes spectrometer.
2.
See https://www.kratos.com/products/axis-supra-xps-surface-analysis-instrument for a description of the AXIS Ultra spectrometer.
3.
See https://scientaomicron.com/en/products-solutions/electron-spectroscopy/HAXPES-Lab for a description of the HAXPES-Lab spectrometer.
4.
C. Zborowski, T. Conard, A. Vanleenhove, I. Hoflijk, and I. Vaesen,
Surf. Sci. Spectra
29,
024006
(
2022
).

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