Zinc oxide powder was characterized by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) with an Ag Lα (2984.2 eV) excitation source. The sample was fixed to a stainless-steel sample holder with a copper double-sided adhesive tape. Survey spectrum, C 1s, O 1s, Zn 2p, and Zn LMM core levels’ spectra were acquired.

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