Near-ambient pressure–x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at ca. 2500 Pa, or even higher in some cases. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe particles, moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show survey, narrow (Zr 3p, Zr 3d, and O 1s), and Auger (O KLL) NAP-XPS scans of ZrO2 particles. Charge compensation for this insulating sample took place via the residual gas in the chamber. Zirconia is an important ceramic material. Accordingly, the XPS spectra of zirconia should be useful references.

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