Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show survey, C 1s, O 1s, and N 1s narrow scans from an aqueous solution of a common protein, bovine serum albumin. The C 1s peak envelope is well fit to four symmetric peaks of equal width that correspond to carbon bonded to carbon and hydrogen (C-1), carbon singly bonded to oxygen (C-2), carbonyl and/or amide carbon (C-3), and carboxyl carbon (C-4). Two possible peak fits are considered for the N 1s and O 1s peak envelopes. The N 1s signal is fit to four peaks that correspond to amine (—NH2), amide (O˭C‒NH2), ammonium (—NH3+), and N2(g) nitrogen, and alternatively to three peaks that correspond to amine, amide, and N2(g) nitrogen. The O 1s peak envelope is similarly fit to three and four components.

1.
D. I.
Patel
 et al, “
Introduction to near ambient pressure-x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) characterization of various materials
,”
Surf. Sci. Spectra
(accepted).
2.
C.
Rodriguez
,
P.
Dietrich
,
V.
Torres-Costa
,
V.
Cebrián
,
C.
Gómez-Abad
,
A.
Díaz
,
O.
Ahumada
, and
M. M.
Silván
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
(
2019
).
3.
P. M.
Dietrich
,
S.
Bahr
,
T.
Yamamoto
,
M.
Meyer
, and
A.
Thissen
,
J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenom.
231
,
118
(
2019
).
4.
M.
Kjærvik
,
A.
Hermanns
,
P.
Dietrich
,
A.
Thissen
,
S.
Bahr
,
B.
Ritter
,
E.
Kemnitz
, and
W. E. S.
Unger
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
29
,
474002
(
2017
).
5.
M.
Kjærvik
,
K.
Schwibbert
,
P.
Dietrich
,
A.
Thissen
, and
W. E. S.
Unger
,
Surf. Interface Anal.
50
,
996
(
2018
).
6.
H.
Siegbahn
,
J. Phys. Chem.
89
,
897
(
1985
).
7.
M. H.
Cheng
,
K. M.
Callahan
,
A. M.
Margarella
,
D. J.
Tobias
,
J. C.
Hemminger
,
H.
Bluhm
, and
M. J.
Krisch
,
J. Phys. Chem. C
116
,
4545
(
2012
).
8.
V.
Jain
,
S.
Bahr
,
P.
Dietrich
,
M.
Meyer
,
A.
Thißen
, and
M. R.
Linford
, “
Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), aqueous solution and corresponding solid by near-ambient pressure XPS (NAP-XPS)
,”
Surf. Sci. Spectra
(submitted).
9.
S.
Lai
,
S.
Wang
,
J.
Luo
,
L. J.
Lee
,
S.-T.
Yang
, and
M. J.
Madou
,
Analy. Chem.
76
,
1832
(
2004
).
10.
H.
Kaufmann
,
E.
Bailey James
, and
M.
Fussenegger
,
Proteomics
1
,
194
(
2001
).
11.
X.
Jiang
,
R.
Wang
,
Y.
Wang
,
X.
Su
,
Y.
Ying
,
J.
Wang
, and
Y.
Li
,
Biosens. Bioelectron.
29
,
23
(
2011
).
12.
F.
Salam
,
Y.
Uludag
, and
I. E.
Tothill
,
Talanta
115
,
761
(
2013
).
13.
B.
Okutucu
,
A.
Dınçer
,
Ö
Habib
, and
F.
Zıhnıoglu
,
J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods
70
,
709
(
2007
).
14.
M. A.
Redmile-Gordon
,
E.
Armenise
,
R. P.
White
,
P. R.
Hirsch
, and
K. W. T.
Goulding
,
Soil Biol. Biochem.
67
,
166
(
2013
).
15.
V.
Gupta
,
H.
Ganegoda
,
M. H.
Engelhard
,
J.
Terry
, and
M. R.
Linford
,
J. Chem. Educ.
91
,
232
(
2014
).
16.
S. K.
Das
,
C.
Dickinson
,
F.
Lafir
,
D. F.
Brougham
, and
E.
Marsili
,
Green Chem.
14
,
1322
(
2012
).
17.
D. M.
Eby
,
K.
Artyushkova
,
A. K.
Paravastu
, and
G. R.
Johnson
,
J. Mater. Chem.
22
,
9875
(
2012
).
18.
M.
Kjærvik
,
K.
Schwibbert
,
P.
Dietrich
,
A.
Thissen
, and
W. E. S.
Unger
,
Surf. Interface Anal.
50
,
996
(
2018
).
19.
M. H.
Ahmed
,
J. A.
Byrne
,
J.
McLaughlin
, and
W.
Ahmed
,
Biomed. Life Sci.
4
,
10
(
2013
).
20.
E.
Vanea
and
V.
Simon
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
257
,
2346
(
2011
).
22.
23.
D.
Briggs
and
G.
Beamson
,
Anal. Chem.
64
,
1729
(
1992
).
24.
G.
Shouren
,
K.
Kojio
,
A.
Takahara
, and
T.
Kajiyama
,
J. Biomater. Sci.
9
,
131
(
1998
).
25.
T.
Peters
, “
3—Serum albumin
,” in
The Plasma Proteins
, 2nd ed., edited by
F. W.
Putnam
(
Academic
,
New York
,
1975
), pp.
133
181
.
26.
K.
Hirayama
,
S.
Akashi
,
M.
Furuya
, and
K.-I.
Fukuhara
,
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
173
,
639
(
1990
).

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.