Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can be used to probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show survey and O 1s NAP-XPS spectra from water vapor, a material that could not be analyzed at moderate pressures by conventional approaches and that is expected to be present in many analyses.

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