Near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can be used to probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show O 1s, C 1s, and Ca 2p narrow scans and a survey NAP-XPS spectrum from a human urolith, i.e., a kidney stone, which is a biomaterial that could not be analyzed at moderate pressures by conventional approaches.

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