Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can be used to analyze moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, the authors present the NAP-XPS survey, C 1s, O 1s, Ca 2p, and P 2p narrow scans from a human adult molar tooth, a biological material that would be challenging to analyze by conventional approaches. No pretreatment or cleaning of this dental specimen was performed prior to analysis. Three different regions (top, middle, and root) of the tooth were analyzed. The survey spectra, which differed considerably from each other, show the presence of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorous. Tin and sulfur are also present in small amounts on the top part of the tooth. C 1s narrow spectra are well fitted with four synthetic peaks.

1.
R. P.
Suddick
and
N. O.
Harris
,
Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med.
1
,
135
(
1990
).
2.
A. E.
Nelson
,
N. K. S.
Hildebrand
, and
P. W.
Major
,
Surf. Sci. Spectra
9
,
250
(
2002
).
3.
F.
Taube
,
R.
Ylmén
,
A.
Shchukarev
,
S.
Nietzsche
, and
J.
Norén
,
J. Dent.
38
,
72
(
2009
).
4.
F.
Muller
,
C.
Zeitz
,
H.
Mantz
,
K. H.
Ehses
,
F.
Soldera
,
J.
Schmauch
,
M.
Hannig
,
S.
Hufner
, and
K.
Jacobs
,
Langmuir
26
,
18750
(
2010
).
5.
B.-S.
Kang
,
Y.-T.
Sul
,
S.-J.
Oh
,
H.-J.
Lee
, and
T.
Albrektsson
,
Acta Biomater.
5
,
2222
(
2009
).
6.
L.
Lou
,
A. E.
Nelson
,
G.
Heo
, and
P. W.
Major
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
254
,
6706
(
2008
).
7.
D. M.
Hercules
and
N. L.
Craig
,
J. Dent. Res.
57
,
296
(
1978
).
8.
C. M.
Zamudio-Ortega
,
R.
Contreras-Bulnes
,
R. J.
Scougall-Vilchis
,
R. A.
Morales-Luckie
,
O. F.
Olea-Mejía
, and
L. E.
Rodríguez-Vilchis
,
Eur. J. Paediatr. Dent.
15
,
275
(
2014
).
9.
S. K.
Erikson
 et al,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
46
, 075119 (
2014
).
10.
F. D.
Ogletree
,
H.
Bluhm
,
E. D.
Hebenstreit
, and
M.
Salmeron
,
Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A
601
,
151
(
2009
).
11.
G.
Olivieri
,
G.
Giorgi
,
J. B.
Green
,
R. G.
Brown
, and
A.
Matthew
,
J. Electron. Spectros. Relat. Phenomena
216
,
1
(
2017
).
12.
M.
Salmeron
and
R.
Schlögl
,
Surf. Sci. Rep.
63
,
169
(
2008
).
13.
V.
Gupta
,
H.
Ganegoda
,
M. H.
Engelhard
,
J.
Terry
, and
M. R.
Linford
,
J. Chem. Educ.
91
,
232
(
2014
).
14.
G.
Beamson
and
D.
Briggs
,
High Resolution XPS of Organic Polymers: The Scienta ESCA300 Database
(
Wiley
,
Chichester
,
1992
).
15.
V.
Jain
,
M. C.
Biesinger
, and
M. R.
Linford
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
447
,
548
(
2018
).
17.
P.
Swift
,
Surf. Interface Anal.
4
,
47
(
1982
).
18.
B.
Singh
,
A.
Diwan
,
V.
Jain
,
A.
Herrera-Gomez
,
J.
Terry
, and
M. R.
Linford
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
387
,
155
(
2016
).
19.
D. I.
Patel
 et al, “
Introduction to near-ambient x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS)
. Characterization of various materials,”
Surf. Sci. Spectra
(submitted).
20.
P. M.
Dietrich
,
S.
Bahr
,
T.
Yamamoto
,
M.
Meyer
, and
A.
Thissen
,
J. Electron. Spectros. Relat. Phenomena
231
, 118 (2019).
21.
A.
Jürgensen
,
N.
Esser
, and
R.
Hergenröder
,
Surf. Interface Anal.
44
,
1100
(
2012
).
22.
A. H.
Barber
,
D.
Lu
, and
N. M.
Pugno
,
J. Royal Soc. Interface
12
,
20141326
(
2015
).
23.
M. d. P.
Gutiérrez-Salazar
and
J.
Reyes-Gasga
,
Mater. Res.
6
,
367
(
2003
).
24.
G.
Greczynski
and
L.
Hultman
,
ChemPhysChem
18
,
1507
(
2017
).

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.