Reduction of the oxygen content of low to medium alloy steels by the C–O reaction under low pressure is discussed. Avoidance of disturbing reactions with the ladle refractory is accomplished by using basic lined teeming ladles with sliding stoppers. The exothermic vacuum refining of high chromium content alloyed steels is accomplished with gaseous oxygen. The importance of this new process should be considered when planning for the construction of steel plants in the future.

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