The presence of amorphous oxide layers can significantly affect the coherent time of superconducting qubits due to their high dielectric loss. Typically, the surface oxides of superconductor films exhibit lossy and unstable behavior when exposed to air. To increase the coherence time, it is essential for qubits to have stable and low dielectric loss oxides, either as barrier or passivation layers. In this study, we highlight the robust and stable nature of an amorphous tantalum oxide layer formed on α-Ta (110) film by employing chemical and structural analyses. Such kind of oxide layer forms in a self-limiting process on the surface of α-Ta (110) film in piranha solution, yielding stable thickness and steady chemical composition. Quarter-wavelength coplanar waveguide resonators are made to study the loss of this oxide. One resonator has a Qi of 3.0 × 106 in the single photon region. The Qi of most devices are higher than 2.0 × 106. Moreover, most of them are still over 1 × 106 even after exposed to air for months. Based on these findings, we propose an all-tantalum superconducting qubit utilizing such oxide as passivation layers, which possess low dielectric loss and improved stability.

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See supplementary material online for the α-Ta (110) film's growth direction, XPS measurement of amorphous tantalum oxide layers on its surface at different angles, the Qi measurement setup, fitting S21 curves to obtain Qi, and analyzing the upper limit loss tangent of the amorphous tantalum oxide layer on the α-Ta (110) film surface.

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