Lithography is one of the key steps in micro/nanofabrication, which involves the use of oil-based resists, organic solvents, and toxic chemicals. Nowadays, environmental issues and regulation have raised the need for developing greener materials and processes. Therefore, efforts have been devoted to developing greener resists, in particular, resists based on water-soluble bio-sourced polymers. Among these biopolymers, polysaccharides have gained a strong interest. However, their interaction with silica etching plasmas, in particular, fluorinated plasmas, remains scarcely studied and contradictory results are found in the literature. The present contribution reports on the study of the interaction of two chitosans exhibiting different degrees of N-acetylation with SF6/Ar and CHF3 etching plasmas. The surface modifications and in-depth modifications were studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, water contact angle, and size-exclusion chromatography. The effect of neutrals, ions, and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) was considered. Our results suggest that the chitosan selectivity is greatly influenced by the deposition of a fluorocarbon film and that VUV seems to be involved in scissions of the polymer chains. No significant difference between the two chitosans was observed.
Water-soluble bio-sourced resist interactions with fluorinated etching plasmas during the photolithography process
Paule Durin, Olha Sysova, Alexandre Téolis, Stéphane Trombotto, Samar Hajjar-Garreau, Thierry Delair, Isabelle Servin, Névine Rochat, Raluca Tiron, Corinne Gablin, Olivier Soppera, Aziz Benamrouche, Thomas Géhin, Didier Léonard, Jean-Louis Leclercq, Yann Chevolot; Water-soluble bio-sourced resist interactions with fluorinated etching plasmas during the photolithography process. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 1 December 2023; 41 (6): 062204. https://doi.org/10.1116/6.0002934
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