Semiconductor manufacturing technology keeps toward scaling down to a few nanometers. To protect the process yield and achieve the success of chip manufacturing, the center-to-edge uniformity of the wafer's temperature has become a crucial parameter. The thermal characteristics of the wafer are dominantly affected by the electrostatic chuck, which is generally used to support the wafer in the manufacturing process. In particular, the backside gas, which passes through the interface between the wafer and electrostatic chuck, is important for cooling the wafer below a critical temperature. The heat transfer via a backside gas can be explained by the layer-bulk model, and its pressure is a key factor to determine the cooling effectiveness. In this paper, a one-dimensional thermal circuit model is established for a system including the wafer, electrostatic chuck, and backside gas to calculate the convective heat transfer coefficient caused by the backside gas. The numerical results showed that the uniformity of the wafer's temperature became worse as the backside gas pressure increased in a low-pressure range but significantly improved above a critical value of the gas pressure. Based on our findings, we concluded that the backside gas pressure should be optimized to improve the uniformity of the wafer temperature.
Heat transfer mechanism of electrostatic chuck surface and wafer backside to improve wafer temperature uniformity
Tae Woong Yoon, Sung Il Cho, Minsuk Choi, Sang Jeen Hong; Heat transfer mechanism of electrostatic chuck surface and wafer backside to improve wafer temperature uniformity. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 1 July 2023; 41 (4): 044002. https://doi.org/10.1116/6.0002737
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