Plasma polymerization is a simple, solvent-free, dry process that involves vaporizing a monomer and ionizing them to the plasma state. This study reports the plasma polymerization of aniline in a direct current glow discharge. Aniline was introduced into a vacuum chamber and plasma-polymerized onto an indium-doped tin oxide/glass substrate at varying discharge potentials and deposition times. The resulting plasma-polymerized aniline films were in the leucoemeraldine form, as evidenced by UV-Vis and infrared spectral analyses. Monocarbon species that are products of the aromatic ring rupture were observed from the optical emission spectra of the discharge. The films reveal a smooth, pinhole-free surface across different process parameters. The film thickness from the 200 to 600 nm range presents a linear relationship with respect to the duration of deposition. The deposition rate also increased and has a good linear relationship when the discharge potential was varied.

1.
H.
Shirakawa
,
E. J.
Louis
,
A. G.
MacDiarmid
,
C. K.
Chiang
, and
A. J.
Heeger
,
J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun.
1977
,
578
.
2.
N.
Kumari Jangid
,
S.
Jadoun
, and
N.
Kaur
,
Eur. Polym. J.
125
,
109485
(
2020
).
3.
H.
Wang
,
J.
Lin
, and
Z. X.
Shen
,
J. Sci. Adv. Mater. Devices
1
,
225
(
2016
).
4.
S.
Matindoust
,
G.
Farzi
,
M.
Baghaei-Nejad
,
M.
Shahrokh Abadi
,
Z.
Zou
, and
L.-R.
Zheng
,
J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.
28
,
7760
(
2017
).
5.
A. S.
Marques
,
R.
Szostak
,
P. E.
Marchezi
, and
A. F.
Nogueira
,
J. Phys. Energy
1
,
015004
(
2018
).
6.
R. C.
Silva
,
M. V.
Sarmento
,
F. A. R.
Nogueira
,
J.
Tonholo
,
R. J.
Mortimer
,
R.
Faez
, and
A. S.
Ribeiro
,
RSC Adv.
4
,
14948
(
2014
).
7.
8.
Z.
Hamid
,
M.
Gomaa
,
S.
Rehim
,
M.
Hamid
, and
A.
Ibrahim
,
Coatings
9
,
748
(
2019
).
9.
G.
Ozaydin-Ince
,
A.
Coclite
, and
K.
Gleason
,
Rep. Prog. Phys.
75
,
016501
(
2012
).
10.
X.
Fu
,
C.
Jia
,
Z.
Wan
,
X.
Weng
,
J.
Xie
, and
L.
Deng
,
Org. Electron.
15
,
2702
(
2014
).
11.
A. C. M.
Szymanski
,
B.
Łuszczyńska
, and
J.
Ulanski
,
Sci. Rep.
9
,
8493
(
2019
).
12.
D. T. W.
Toolan
and
J. R.
Howse
,
J. Mater. Chem. C
1
,
603
(
2013
).
13.
S.
Sathish
,
B. C.
Shekar
, and
R.
Sathyamoorthy
,
Phys. Procedia
49
,
166
(
2013
).
14.
S.
Ternes
et al.,
Adv. Energy Mater.
9
,
1901581
(
2019
).
15.
N.
Morossof
, “An introduction to plasma polymerization,” in Plasma Deposition, Treatment and Etching of Polymers, edited by R. D’Agostino (Academic, San Diego, 1990), pp. 1–84.
16.
N.
Chen
,
D. H.
Kim
,
P.
Kovacik
,
H.
Sojoudi
,
M.
Wang
, and
K. K.
Gleason
,
Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng.
7
,
373
(
2016
).
17.
A. M.
Coclite
et al.,
Adv. Mater.
25
,
5392
(
2013
).
18.
W.
Zhang
,
W.
Ju
,
X.
Wu
,
Y.
Wang
,
Q.
Wang
,
H.
Zhou
,
S.
Wang
, and
C.
Hu
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
367
,
542
(
2016
).
19.
R.
Kumar
,
S.
Singh
, and
A. K.
Misra
,
J. Miner. Mater. Char. Eng.
9
,
997
(
2010
).
20.
C.
Seoul
and
W.-J.
Song
,
J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron.
12
,
51
(
2001
).
21.
Y.
Sun
,
C.
Zhu
,
W.
Sun
,
Y.
Xu
, and
X.
Xiao
,
Carbohydr. Polym.
164
,
222
(
2017
).
22.
R.
Múgica-Vidal
,
F.
Alba-Elías
,
E.
Sainz-García
, and
A.
González-Marcos
,
Surf. Coat. Technol.
309
,
1062
(
2016
).
23.
X.
Liu
,
T. A.
Elkhooly
,
R.
Zhang
,
Q.
Feng
,
A.
Bachhuka
,
K.
Vasilev
,
Q.
Cai
, and
S.
Mi
,
Mater. Lett.
186
,
90
(
2016
).
24.
D.
Zuza
,
V.
Nekhoroshev
,
A.
Batrakov
,
A.
Markov
, and
I.
Kurzina
,
Vacuum
207
,
111690
(
2023
).
25.
C. A.
Schneider
,
W. S.
Rasband
, and
K. W.
Eliceiri
,
Nat. Methods
9
,
671
(
2012
).
26.
T.
Barman
,
A. R.
Pal
, and
J.
Chutia
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
313
,
286
(
2014
).
27.
T.
Barman
and
A. R.
Pal
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
259
,
691
(
2012
).
28.
G.
Solomons
,
C.
Fryhle
, and
S.
Snyder
,
Organic Chemistry
,
11th ed.
(
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
,
Hoboken, NJ
,
2014
).
29.
D.
Hegemann
,
Plasma Polymer Deposition and Coatings on Polymers
(
Elsevier
,
New York
,
2014
), Vol. 4.
30.
C.
Nastase
,
F.
Nastase
,
A.
Dumitru
,
M.
Ionescu
, and
I.
Stamatin
,
Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf.
36
,
481
(
2005
).
31.
C.
Nastase
,
F.
Nastase
,
A.
Vaseashta
, and
I.
Stamatin
,
Prog. Solid State Chem.
34
,
181
(
2006
).
32.
F.
Kozlowski
,
B.
Huber
,
P.
Steiner
, and
W.
Lang
,
Sens. Actuators, A
53
,
284
(
1996
).
33.
N. I.
Ibrahim
and
A. S.
Wasfi
,
Synth. Met.
250
,
49
(
2019
).
34.
J.
Wang
,
K. G.
Neoh
,
L.
Zhao
, and
E. T.
Kang
,
J. Colloid Interface Sci.
224
,
214
(
2002
).
35.
G.
Moad
,
M.
Chen
,
M.
Häussler
,
A.
Postma
,
E.
Rizzardo
, and
S. H.
Thang
,
Polym. Chem.
2
,
492
(
2011
).
36.
H.
Kabir
,
R.
Nasrin
,
K.
Hasan
,
M. M.
Rahman
, and
A. H.
Bhuiyan
,
Mater. Chem. Phys.
232
,
209
(
2019
).
37.
A.
Cirocka
,
D.
Zarzeczańska
,
A.
Wcisło
,
J.
Ryl
,
R.
Bogdanowicz
,
B.
Finke
, and
T.
Ossowski
,
Electrochim. Acta
313
,
432
(
2019
).
38.
B.
Akhavan
,
K.
Jarvis
, and
P.
Majewski
,
Surf. Coat. Technol.
264
,
72
(
2015
).
39.
J.
Bardon
,
R.
Dieden
,
P.
Grysan
,
G.
Mertz
,
A.
Martin
,
M.
Delmée
, and
D.
Ruch
,
Surf. Coat. Technol.
358
,
320
(
2019
).
40.
R.
Reis
,
M.
Duke
,
A.
Merenda
,
B.
Winther-Jensen
,
L.
Puskar
,
M. J.
Tobin
,
J. D.
Orbell
, and
L. F.
Dumée
,
J. Membr. Sci.
537
,
1
(
2017
).
41.
A.
Zaitsev
,
F.
Poncin-Epaillard
,
A.
Lacoste
,
A.
Kassiba
, and
D.
Debarnot
,
Prog. Org. Coat.
128
,
112
(
2019
).
42.
G. J.
Cruz
,
J.
Morales
,
M. M.
Castillo-Ortega
, and
R.
Olayo
,
Synth. Met.
88
,
213
(
1997
).
43.
S.
Gaur
and
G.
Vergason
, “Plasma polymerization: Theory and practice,” in 43rd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters, Denver, CO, 15–20 April 2000 (Vergason Technology, Inc., Van Etten, NY, 2000), pp. 267–271.
44.
46.
H.
Goktas
,
Z.
Demircioglu
,
K.
Sel
,
T.
Gunes
, and
I.
Kaya
,
Thin Solid Films
548
,
81
(
2013
).
47.
D.
Debarnot
,
T.
Merian
, and
F.
Poncin-Epaillard
,
Plasma Chem. Plasma Proc.
31
,
217
(
2011
).
48.
C. J.
Mathai
,
S.
Saravanan
, and
M. R.
Anantharaman
,
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.
240
,
35
(
2002
).
49.
J. H. S.
Almeida
, Jr.,
D. A.
Bertuol
,
A.
Meneguzzi
,
C. A.
Ferreira
, and
F. D. R.
Amado
,
Mater. Res.
16
,
860
(
2013
).
50.
W.
Matysiak
,
T.
Tański
,
W.
Smok
,
K.
Gołombek
, and
E.
Schab-Balcerzak
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
509
,
145068
(
2020
).
51.
N.
Anwar
,
A.
Shakoor
,
G.
Ali
,
H.
Ahmad
,
N. A.
Niaz
,
S.-U.
Arooj
, and
A.
Mahmood
,
J. Energy Storage
55
,
105446
(
2022
).
52.
F. A.
Ngwabebhoh
,
O.
Zandraa
,
T.
Sáha
,
J.
Stejskal
,
M.
Trchová
,
D.
Kopecký
,
J.
Pfleger
, and
J.
Prokeš
,
Synth. Met.
291
,
117191
(
2022
).
53.
V. S.
Patil
,
S. S.
Thoravat
,
S. S.
Kundale
,
T. D.
Dongale
,
P. S.
Patil
, and
S. A.
Jadhav
,
Chem. Phys. Lett.
814
,
140334
(
2023
).
54.
K. A.
Ibrahim
,
Arabian J. Chem.
10
,
S2668
S2674
(
2017
).
You do not currently have access to this content.