Cd-free ZnCuInS/ZnS quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) were fabricated using metallic sputtered ZnO. The undoped and metallic ZnO film was prepared with substrate heating to enhance the electronics properties of the oxide layer. The semiconductor properties of the ZnO layer were examined by using Hall effect measurements. The structural and morphological properties were observed using x-ray diffraction analysis and field emission scanning electron microscopy. After fabricating the QLED devices, its performances were investigated under DC electrical measurement system and compared with the preparation conditions of the ZnO films. The power efficiency of 11.6 lm/W, current efficiency of 14.1 cd/A, and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 7.5% were achieved, where the ZnO film was prepared at the substrate temperature of 150 °C, and the Hall mobility of 23.4 cm2/Vs, carrier density of 4.1 × 1020 cm−3 was observed accordingly.

1.
F.
Grieser
,
D. N.
Furlong
,
R. S.
Urquhart
, and
D. J.
Elliot
,
Fin. Part. Sci. Technol.
12
,
733
(
1996
).
2.
Y.
Spanhel
,
M.
Haase
,
H.
Weller
, and
A.
Hengleiir
,
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
109
,
5649
(
1987
).
3.
M.
Sundaram
,
S. A.
Chalmers
,
P. F.
Hopkins
, and
A. C.
Gossard
,
Science
254
,
1326
(
1991
).
4.
A. R.
Kortan
,
R.
Hull
,
R. L.
Opila
,
M. G.
Bawendi
,
M. L.
Steigerwald
,
P. J.
Carroll
, and
L. E.
Brus
,
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
112
,
1327
(
1990
).
5.
C. B.
Murray
,
D. J.
Norris
, and
M. G.
Bawendi
,
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
115
,
8706
(
1993
).
6.
A. P.
Alivisatos
,
Adv. Sci.
271
,
933
(
1996
).
7.
V. I.
Klimov
 et al,
Science
290
,
314
(
2016
).
8.
M. V.
Artemyev
,
U.
Woggon
,
R.
Wannemacher
,
H.
Jaschinski
, and
W.
Langbein
,
Nano Lett.
1
,
309
(
2001
).
9.
N. L.
Pickett
,
O.
Masala
, and
J.
Harris
,
Mater. Matters
3
,
1
(
2011
).
10.
M. V.
Kovalenko
 et al,
ACS Nano
9
,
1012
(
2015
).
11.
J.
Huang
 et al,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
111
,
251104
(
2017
).
12.
A.
De Iacovo
,
C.
Venettacci
,
L.
Colace
,
L.
Scopa
, and
S.
Foglia
,
Sci. Rep.
6
,
1
(
2016
).
13.
J. W.
Jo
 et al,
Adv. Mater.
29
,
1
(
2017
).
14.
A. R.
Kirmani
 et al,
ACS Energy Lett.
2
,
1952
(
2017
).
15.
H.
Shen
,
Q.
Lin
,
H.
Wang
,
L.
Qian
,
Y.
Yang
,
A.
Titov
,
J.
Hyvonen
,
Y.
Zheng
, and
L. S.
Li
,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
5
,
12011
(
2013
).
16.
P.
Reiss
,
M.
Carrière
,
C.
Lincheneau
,
L.
Vaure
, and
S.
Tamang
,
Chem. Rev.
116
,
10731
(
2016
).
17.
A. M.
Smith
and
S.
Nie
,
Acc. Chem. Res.
43
,
190
(
2010
).
18.
Y.
Yang
,
C.
Zhang
,
X.
Qu
,
W.
Zhang
,
M.
Marus
,
B.
Xu
,
K.
Wang
, and
X. W.
Sun
,
IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol.
18
,
220
(
2019
).
19.
M. G.
Bawendi
,
M. L.
Steigerwald
, and
L. E.
Brus
,
Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.
41
,
477
(
1990
).
20.
J.
Ma
,
M.
Liu
,
Z.
Li
, and
L.
Li
,
Opt. Mater.
47
,
56
(
2015
).
21.
J.
Lee
and
C. S.
Han
,
Nanoscale Res. Lett.
9
,
1
(
2014
).
22.
Z.
Li
and
X.
Peng
,
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
133
,
6578
(
2011
).
23.
J. Q.
Grim
,
L.
Manna
, and
I.
Moreels
,
Chem. Soc. Rev.
44
,
5897
(
2015
).
24.
H. C.
Yoon
,
J. H.
Oh
,
M.
Ko
,
H.
Yoo
, and
Y. R.
Do
,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
7
,
7342
(
2015
).
25.
W.
Chung
,
H.
Jung
,
C. H.
Lee
, and
S. H.
Kim
,
Opt. Express
22
,
2483
(
2014
).
26.
X.
Wang
,
Z.
Liang
,
X.
Xu
,
N.
Wang
,
J.
Fang
,
J.
Wang
, and
G.
Xu
,
J. Alloys Compd.
640
,
134
(
2015
).
27.
J. R.
Manders
 et al,
J. Soc. Inf. Disp.
23
,
523
(
2015
).
28.
J.
Kwak
 et al,
Nano Lett.
12
,
2362
(
2012
).
29.
E. M.
Kaidashev
 et al,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
82
,
3901
(
2003
).
30.
B. S.
Mashford
 et al,
Nat. Photonics
7
,
407
(
2013
).
31.
D. J.
Kang
,
J. S.
Kim
,
S. W.
Jeong
,
Y.
Roh
,
S. H.
Jeong
, and
J. H.
Boo
,
Thin Solid Films
475
,
160
(
2005
).
32.
O.
Kappertz
,
R.
Drese
, and
M.
Wuttig
,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A
20
,
2084
(
2002
).
33.
T.
Minami
,
H.
Nanto
, and
S.
Takata
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
41
,
958
(
1982
).
34.
J.
Wang
 et al,
Adv. Mater.
27
,
2311
(
2015
).
35.
Y. L.
Shi
,
F.
Liang
,
Y.
Hu
,
M. P.
Zhuo
,
X. D.
Wang
, and
L. S.
Liao
,
Nanoscale
9
,
14792
(
2017
).
36.
37.
Z.
Liu
,
K.
Zhao
,
A.
Tang
,
Y.
Xie
,
L.
Qian
,
W.
Cao
,
Y.
Yang
,
Y.
Chen
, and
F.
Teng
,
Org. Electron.
36
,
97
(
2016
).
38.
M. M. R.
Biswas
,
Md. F.
Hossain
, and
H.
Okada
,
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.
60
,
084001
(
2021
).
39.
X.
Jiang
,
G.
Liu
,
L.
Tang
,
A.
Wang
,
Y.
Tian
,
A.
Wang
, and
Z.
Du
,
Nanotechnology
31
,
255203
(
2020
).
40.
K.
Ron Lin
 et al,
Adv. Dispos. Technol.
11708
,
117080R
(
2021
).
41.
J. L.
van der Paw
,
Philips Res. Rep.
13
,
1
(
1958
).
42.
Z.
Onuk
,
N.
Rujisamphan
,
R.
Murray
,
M.
Bah
,
M.
Tomakin
, and
S. I.
Shah
,
Appl. Surf. Sci.
396
,
1458
(
2017
).
43.
L. B.
Freund
and
S.
Suresh
,
Thin Film Materials, Stress; Defect Formation and Surface Evolution
(
Cambridge University
,
Cambridge
,
2010
), pp.
44
.
44.
S. M.
Park
,
T.
Ikegami
, and
K.
Ebihara
,
Thin Solid Films
513
,
90
(
2006
).
45.
M.
Miyazaki
,
K.
Sato
,
A.
Mitsui
, and
H.
Nishimura
,
J. Non-Cryst. Solids
218
,
323
(
1997
).
46.
J. H.
Park
,
J. M.
Shin
,
S. Y.
Cha
,
J. W.
Park
,
S. Y.
Jeong
,
H. K.
Pak
, and
C. R.
Cho
,
J. Korean Phys. Soc.
49
,
584
(
2006
).
47.
D. H.
Kim
,
E.
Byon
,
G. H.
Lee
, and
S.
Cho
,
Thin Solid Films
510
,
148
(
2006
).
48.
C.
Mead
,
W.
Spitzer
, and
F. L.
Position
,
Phys. Rev.
134
,
A713
(
1964
).
49.
T.
Sun
,
B.
Yao
,
A. P.
Warren
,
K.
Barmak
,
M. F.
Toney
,
R. E.
Peale
, and
K. R.
Coffey
,
Phys. Rev.
81
,
155454
(
2010
).
50.
K.
Barmak
,
A.
Darbal
,
K. J.
Ganesh
,
P. J.
Ferreira
,
J. M.
Rickman
,
T.
Sun
,
B.
Yao
,
A. P.
Warren
, and
K. R.
Coffey
,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A
32
,
61503
(
2014
).
51.
K.
Shoda
,
M.
Morimoto
,
S.
Naka
, and
H.
Okada
,
Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Trans. Electron.
E102-C
,
196
(
2019
).
52.
M.
Morimoto
,
T.
Yoshida
,
S.
Naka
, and
H.
Okada
,
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.
59
,
SDDC03
(
2020
).
53.
N.
Matsusue
,
S.
Ikame
,
Y.
Suzuki
, and
H.
Naito
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
85
,
4046
(
2004
).
54.
N.
Matsusue
,
Y.
Suzuki
, and
H.
Naito
,
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.
45
,
5966
(
2006
).
55.
See the supplementary material at https://www.scitation.org/doi/suppl/10.1116/6.0001365 for the investigation of the electrical properties of the devices with and without PEIE layer, and photoluminescence spectra of ZnO and QDs layers according to variation of Td and the presence of the PEIE layer.
56.
W.
Zhang
,
Q.
Lou
,
W.
Ji
,
J.
Zhao
, and
X.
Zhong
,
Chem. Mater.
26
,
1204
(
2014
).
57.
J.-H.
Kim
,
C.-Y.
Han
,
K.-H.
Lee
,
K.-S.
An
,
W.
Song
,
J.
Kim
,
M.
Suk Oh
,
Y.
Rag Do
, and
H.
Yang
,
Chem. Mater.
27
,
197
(
2015
).
58.
F.
Chen
,
Z.
Liu
,
Z.
Guan
,
Z.
Liu
,
X.
Li
,
Z.
Deng
,
F.
Teng
, and
A.
Tang
,
ACS Photonics
5
,
3704
(
2018
).

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.