Detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and inactivated virus was achieved using disposable and biofunctionalized functional strips, which can be connected externally to a reusable printed circuit board for signal amplification with an embedded metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). A series of chemical reactions was performed to immobilize both a monoclonal antibody and a polyclonal antibody onto the Au-plated electrode used as the sensing surface. An important step in the biofunctionalization, namely, the formation of Au-plated clusters on the sensor strips, was verified by scanning electron microscopy, as well as electrical measurements, to confirm successful binding of thiol groups on this Au surface. The functionalized sensor was externally connected to the gate electrode of the MOSFET, and synchronous pulses were applied to both the sensing strip and the drain contact of the MOSFET. The resulting changes in the dynamics of drain waveforms were converted into analog voltages and digital readouts, which correlate with the concentration of proteins and virus present in the tested solution. A broad range of protein concentrations from 1 fg/ml to 10 μg/ml and virus concentrations from 100 to 2500 PFU/ml were detectable for the sensor functionalized with both antibodies. The results show the potential of this approach for the development of a portable, low-cost, and disposable cartridge sensor system for point-of-care detection of viral diseases.
Fast SARS-CoV-2 virus detection using disposable cartridge strips and a semiconductor-based biosensor platform
Minghan Xian, Hao Luo, Xinyi Xia, Chaker Fares, Patrick H. Carey, Chan-Wen Chiu, Fan Ren, Siang-Sin Shan, Yu-Te Liao, Shu-Min Hsu, Josephine F. Esquivel-Upshaw, Chin-Wei Chang, Jenshan Lin, Steven C. Ghivizzani, Stephen J. Pearton; Fast SARS-CoV-2 virus detection using disposable cartridge strips and a semiconductor-based biosensor platform. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 1 May 2021; 39 (3): 033202. https://doi.org/10.1116/6.0001060
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