A CubeSat is a type of miniaturized and modular satellite designed for space research or technology demonstration. By filling the unused capacity of major launch vehicles, CubeSats significantly lower the cost of entry to the space. To reduce the energy loss at the solar panel coverglass on CubeSats, the authors investigated the potential of the biomimetic moth-eye antireflection (MEAR) technique which features a gradient refractive index. A novel fabrication process combining nanosphere lithography, reactive-ion etching, and dry oxidation for patterning glass with moth-eye structures was reported that allows for the production of well-defined nanopillars with tunable sidewall profiles. The thermal annealing treatment of colloidal particles was introduced for making MEAR structures for which partial deformation of nanospheres was achieved. The broadband and omnidirectional antireflective performance of fabricated glasses was experimentally demonstrated by using a spectrophotometer and ellipsometer. A significant 10% decrease of reflectance throughout the measured spectral range was observed at a high incident angle of 75°.

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