We present the results of an interlaboratory study on work function (WF) measurements by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) conducted under the auspices of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards. Two samples, gold (Au) film deposited on a flat Si(100) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), were distributed to six different laboratories. Prior to UPS measurements, the samples underwent common sample pre-cleaning procedures: wet treatment and Ar+-sputtering in a vacuum for Au, and mechanical peeling in air for HOPG. Instrumental settings are adjusted for energy-scale calibration and sample bias optimization. The average reference WF value (WFref) and its expanded uncertainty (Uref) were calculated from each dataset that participants provided. The results of the Au sample demonstrated 5.40 ± 0.13 eV after Ar+ sputtering in vacuum, while the HOPG sample showed 4.62 ± 0.16 eV after mechanical peeling-off. Even though the participants used slightly different sample bias voltages and sample cleaning methods with various instruments, the results demonstrate remarkable consistency. Their consistency among the laboratories for both samples with high and low WF values provides a basis for establishing a new international standard for UPS in the surface chemical analysis community.
Work function measurement by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy: Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study
Jeong Won Kim, Ansoon Kim, Hui Ung Hwang, Jun Hyung Kim, Seungwook Choi, Norbert Koch, Dongguen Shin, Zhijuan Zhao, Fen Liu, Minki Choi, Kyu Myung Lee, Yongsup Park; Work function measurement by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy: Versailles project on advanced materials and standards interlaboratory study. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1 September 2023; 41 (5): 053211. https://doi.org/10.1116/6.0002852
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