The objective of this work is to describe the current state of the rapidly evolving field of 3D piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (piezoMEMS), and where it needs to go to fully leverage the potential performance benefits offered by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We define 3D piezoMEMS as the application of piezoelectric ALD films to 3D, high aspect-ratio, mechanically pliable structures. Since there are so few existing reports of 3D piezoMEMS, a literature review of ALD films applied to conventional microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices is given. ALD processes for piezoelectric thin films are reviewed in the context of relevant applications such as transducers and actuators. Examples include aluminum nitride, hafnium zirconate, doped-hafnia, lead zirconate-titanate, lead hafnate, and lead hafnate-titanate. New concepts for ALD-enabled 3D piezoMEMS actuators are presented with supporting theoretical calculations that show that chip-scale mechanical work densities could be improved by compared to conventional planar piezoMEMS. 3D fabrication methods are also discussed, while the future needs of atomic layer processing are highlighted.
Extending atomic layer deposition for use in next-generation piezoMEMS: Review and perspective
Note: This paper is part of the 2024 Special Topic Collection on Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).
Nicholas A. Strnad, Daniel M. Potrepka, Brendan M. Hanrahan, Glen R. Fox, Ronald G. Polcawich, Jeffrey S. Pulskamp, Ryan R. Knight, Ryan Q. Rudy; Extending atomic layer deposition for use in next-generation piezoMEMS: Review and perspective. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1 September 2023; 41 (5): 050801. https://doi.org/10.1116/6.0002431
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