High entropy alloy (HEA) films of CrFeCoNiCu were deposited by sputtering. Their structure was characterized and their electric transport properties were studied by temperature-dependent Hall and Seebeck measurements. The HEA films show a solid solution with an fcc structure. The residual electrical resistivity of the films is around 130 μΩ cm, which is higher than the Mott limit for a metal while the temperature dependence of the resistivity above 30 K is metal-like but with a small temperature coefficient of resistivity (2 ppm/K). The dominant scattering mechanism of charge carriers is alloy scattering due to chemical disorder in the HEA. The Hall coefficient is positive while the Seebeck coefficient is negative. This is interpreted as arising from an electronic structure where the Fermi level passes through band states having both holes and electrons as indicated by band structure calculations. Below 30 K, the conduction is discussed in terms of weak localization and Kondo effects. The HEA structure appears stable for annealing in vacuum, while annealing in an oxygen-containing atmosphere causes the surface to oxidize and grow a Cr-rich oxide on the surface. This is then accompanied by demixing of the HEA solid solution and a decrease in the effective resistance of the film.

1.
J.-W.
Yeh
,
S.-K.
Chen
,
S.-J.
Lin
,
J.-Y.
Gan
,
T.-S.
Chin
,
T.-T.
Shun
,
C.-H.
Tsau
, and
S.-Y.
Chang
,
Adv. Eng. Mater.
6
,
299
(
2004
).
2.
B.
Cantor
,
I. T. H.
Chang
,
P.
Knight
, and
A. J. B.
Vincent
,
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
375-377
,
213
(
2004
).
4.
E. P.
George
,
D.
Raabe
, and
R. O.
Ritchie
,
Nat. Rev. Mater.
4
,
515
(
2019
).
5.
B.
Cantor
,
Prog. Mater. Sci.
120
,
100754
(
2020
).
6.
S. R.
Reddy
,
U.
Sunkari
,
A.
Lozinko
,
S.
Guo
, and
P. P.
Bhattacharjee
,
J. Mater. Res.
34
,
687
(
2019
).
7.
S.
Varalakshmi
,
M.
Kamaraj
, and
B. S.
Murty
,
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
527
,
1027
(
2010
).
8.
C.
Ng
,
S.
Guo
,
J.
Luan
,
S.
Shi
, and
C. T.
Liu
,
Intermetallics
31
,
165
(
2012
).
9.
D.
Ma
,
B.
Grabowski
,
F.
Körmann
,
J.
Neugebauer
, and
D.
Raabe
,
Acta Mater.
100
,
90
(
2015
).
10.
Z. G.
Zhu
,
K. H.
Ma
,
Q.
Wang
, and
C. H.
Shek
,
Intermetallics
79
,
1
(
2016
).
11.
O.
Schneeweiss
 et al,
Phys. Rev. B
96
,
014437
(
2017
).
12.
T. M.
Butler
,
J. P.
Alfano
,
R. L.
Martens
, and
M. L.
Weaver
,
JOM
67
,
246
(
2014
).
13.
D.
Yim
and
H. S.
Kim
,
Korean J. Met. Mater.
55
,
671
(
2017
).
14.
X.
Gao
and
Y.
Lu
,
Mater. Lett.
236
,
77
(
2019
).
15.
H. Y.
Diao
,
R.
Feng
,
K. A.
Dahmen
, and
P. K.
Liaw
,
Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.
21
,
252
(
2017
).
16.
D. B.
Miracle
and
O. N.
Senkov
,
Acta Mater.
122
,
448
(
2017
).
17.
L. R.
Owen
and
N. G.
Jones
,
J. Mater. Res.
33
,
2954
(
2018
).
18.
D.
Farkas
and
A.
Caro
,
J. Mater. Res.
33
,
3218
(
2018
).
19.
L. R.
Owen
,
H. J.
Stone
, and
H. Y.
Playford
,
Acta Mater.
170
,
38
(
2019
).
20.
Y.
Zhang
,
T. T.
Zuo
,
Z.
Tang
,
M. C.
Gao
,
K. A.
Dahmen
,
P. K.
Liaw
, and
Z. P.
Lu
,
Prog. Mater. Sci.
61
,
1
(
2014
).
21.
Y. F.
Ye
,
Q.
Wang
,
J.
Lu
,
C. T.
Liu
, and
Y.
Yang
,
Mater. Today
19
,
349
(
2016
).
22.
O. N.
Senkov
,
G. B.
Wilks
,
D. B.
Miracle
,
C. P.
Chuang
, and
P. K.
Liaw
,
Intermetallics
18
,
1758
(
2010
).
23.
C.
Li
,
J. C.
Li
,
M.
Zhao
, and
Q.
Jiang
,
J. Alloys Compd.
475
,
752
(
2009
).
24.
A.
Aliyu
,
M. Y.
Rekha
, and
C.
Srivastava
,
Philos. Mag.
99
,
718
(
2018
).
25.
D.
Gaertner
,
J.
Kottke
,
G.
Wilde
,
S. V.
Divinski
, and
Y.
Chumlyakov
,
J. Mater. Res.
33
,
3184
(
2018
).
26.
A.
Mao
,
H.
Xiang
,
X.
Ran
,
Y.
Li
,
X.
Jin
,
H.
Yu
, and
X.
Gu
,
J. Alloys Compd.
775
,
1177
(
2019
).
27.
M. Y.
Rekha
,
N.
Mallik
, and
C.
Srivastava
,
Sci. Rep.
8
,
8737
(
2018
).
28.
R.
Wang
,
W.
Chen
,
J.
Zhong
, and
L.
Zhang
,
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.
34
,
1791
(
2018
).
29.
A.
Verma
,
P.
Tarate
,
A. C.
Abhyankar
,
M. R.
Mohape
,
D. S.
Gowtam
,
V. P.
Deshmukh
, and
T. I.
Shanmugasundaram
,
Scr. Mater.
161
,
28
(
2019
).
30.
L. R.
Shaginyan
,
V. F.
Britun
,
N. A.
Krapivka
,
S. A.
Firstov
,
A. V.
Kotko
, and
V. F.
Gorban
,
Powder Metall. Met. Ceram.
57
,
293
(
2018
).
31.
Z.
An
,
H.
Jia
,
Y.
Wu
,
P. D.
Rack
,
A. D.
Patchen
,
Y.
Liu
,
Y.
Ren
,
N.
Li
, and
P. K.
Liaw
,
Mater. Res. Lett.
3
,
203
(
2015
).
32.
Y.
Ma
,
G. J.
Peng
,
D. H.
Wen
, and
T. H.
Zhang
,
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
621
,
111
(
2015
).
33.
B. R.
Braeckman
,
F.
Misják
,
G.
Radnóczi
, and
D.
Depla
,
Thin Solid Films
616
,
703
(
2016
).
34.
M.
Arfaoui
,
G.
Radnóczi
, and
V.
Kovács Kis
,
Coatings
10
,
60
(
2020
).
35.
B. R.
Braeckman
and
D.
Depla
,
J. Alloys Compd.
646
,
810
(
2015
).
36.
M.
Schrade
,
H.
Fjeld
,
T.
Norby
, and
T. G.
Finstad
,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
85
,
103906
(
2014
).
37.
A.
Zunger
,
S. H.
Wei
,
L. G.
Ferreira
, and
J. E.
Bernard
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
65
,
353
(
1990
).
38.
G.
Kresse
and
J.
Hafner
,
Phys. Rev. B
47
,
558
(
1993
).
39.
G.
Kresse
and
J.
Furthmüller
,
Phys. Rev. B
54
,
11169
(
1996
).
40.
G.
Kresse
and
J.
Furthmüller
,
Comput. Mater. Sci.
6
,
15
(
1996
).
41.
42.
A. I.
Liechtenstein
,
V. V.
Anisimov
, and
J.
Zaanen
,
Phys. Rev. B
52
,
R5467
(
1995
).
43.
S.
Dudarev
,
G.
Botton
,
S. Y.
Savrasov
,
Z.
Szotek
,
W.
Temmerman
, and
A.
Sutton
,
Phys. Status Solidi A
166
,
429
(
1998
).
44.
J. P.
Perdew
,
K.
Burke
, and
M.
Ernzerhof
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
77
,
3865
(
1996
).
45.
A.
Jain
 et al,
APL Mater.
1
,
011002
(
2013
).
46.
R. D.
Gould
,
S.
Kasap
, and
A. K.
Ray
, in
Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials
, edited by
S.
Kasap
and
P.
Capper
(
Springer International Publishing
,
Cham
,
2017
), p.
1
.
47.
C. V.
Thompson
,
Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci.
20
,
245
(
1990
).
48.
C. V.
Thompson
,
Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci.
30
,
159
(
2000
).
49.
K. K.
Alaneme
and
E. A.
Okotete
,
J. Sci.: Adv. Mater. Devices
4
,
19
(
2019
).
50.
W.
Dong
,
Z.
Zhou
,
L.
Zhang
,
M.
Zhang
,
P.
Liaw
,
G.
Li
, and
R.
Liu
,
Metals
8
,
781
(
2018
).
51.
X. F.
Wang
,
Y.
Zhang
,
Y.
Qiao
, and
G. L.
Chen
,
Intermetallics
15
,
357
(
2007
).
52.
N. E.
Hussey
,
K.
Takenaka
, and
H.
Takagi
,
Philos. Mag.
84
,
2847
(
2004
).
53.
R. J.
Goetsch
,
V. K.
Anand
,
A.
Pandey
, and
D. C.
Johnston
,
Phys. Rev. B
85
,
054517
(
2012
).
54.
K.
Shirakawa
,
K.
Fukamichi
,
T.
Kaneko
, and
T.
Masumoto
,
J. Phys. F: Met. Phys.
14
,
1491
(
1984
).
55.
J.
Kondo
,
Prog. Theor. Phys.
32
,
37
(
1964
).
56.
D.
Li
,
Y.
Homma
,
F.
Honda
,
T.
Yamamura
, and
D.
Aoki
,
Phys. Procedia
75
,
703
(
2015
).
57.
K.
Jin
,
B. C.
Sales
,
G. M.
Stocks
,
G. D.
Samolyuk
,
M.
Daene
,
W. J.
Weber
,
Y.
Zhang
, and
H.
Bei
,
Sci. Rep.
6
,
20159
(
2016
).
58.
J.
Kondo
and
A.
Hewson
,
Scholarpedia
4
,
7529
(
2009
).
59.
T.
Paramanik
and
I.
Das
,
RSC Adv.
5
,
78406
(
2015
).
60.
J.
Mayandi
,
T. G.
Finstad
,
Ø.
Dahl
,
P.
Vajeeston
,
M.
Schrade
,
O. M.
Løvvik
,
S.
Diplas
, and
P.
Carvalho
,
Thin Solid Films
(published online 2022).
61.
N. F.
Mott
,
Metal Insulator Transitions
(
Taylor and Francis
,
London
,
1974
).
62.
S. A.
Hartnoll
,
Nat. Phys.
11
,
54
(
2014
).
63.
Y.-F.
Kao
,
S.-K.
Chen
,
T.-J.
Chen
,
P.-C.
Chu
,
J.-W.
Yeh
, and
S.-J.
Lin
,
J. Alloys Compd.
509
,
1607
(
2011
).
64.
R.
Dannenberg
and
A. H.
King
,
J. Appl. Phys.
88
,
2623
(
2000
).
65.
I.
Bakonyi
 et al,
Philos. Mag.
99
,
1139
(
2019
).
67.
J.
Bass
, in
Encyclopedia of Condensed Matter Physics
, edited by
F.
Bassani
,
G. L.
Liedl
, and
P.
Wyder
(
Elsevier
,
Oxford
,
2005
), p.
219
.
68.
S.
Mu
,
G. D.
Samolyuk
,
S.
Wimmer
,
M. C.
Troparevsky
,
S. N.
Khan
,
S.
Mankovsky
,
H.
Ebert
, and
G. M.
Stocks
,
npj Comput. Mater.
5
,
2
(
2019
).
69.
T. C.
Chasapis
,
D.
Koumoulis
,
B.
Leung
,
N. P.
Calta
,
S. H.
Lo
,
V. P.
Dravid
,
L. S.
Bouchard
, and
M. G.
Kanatzidis
,
APL Mater.
3
,
083601
(
2015
).
70.
R.-C.
Lin
,
T.-K.
Lee
,
D.-H.
Wu
, and
Y.-C.
Lee
,
Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng.
2015
,
1
.
71.
G.
Salomonsen
,
N.
Norman
,
O.
Lonsjo
, and
T. G.
Finstad
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
1
,
7843
(
1989
).
72.
T. D.
Reynolds
,
D. M.
Collins
,
N. K.
Soor
,
S. R.
Street
,
N.
Warnken
,
P. M.
Mignanelli
,
M. C.
Hardy
,
H. E.
Evans
, and
M. P.
Taylor
,
Acta Mater.
181
,
570
(
2019
).
73.
Md.
Julkarnain
,
J.
Hossain
,
K. S.
Sharif
, and
K. A.
Khan
,
J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.
13
,
485
(
2011
).
74.
See the supplementary material at https://www.scitation.org/doi/suppl/10.1116/6.0001394 for diffraction patterns and images.

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.