We report results of a combined experimental and computational model study on the interaction of the battery-relevant ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMP-TFSI) with a Mg thin film model electrode grown on a Ru(0001) substrate, which aims at a fundamental understanding of the solid electrolyte interphase formation at the electrode–electrolyte interface in postlithium batteries. Scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy were employed for the characterization of the Mg thin film model electrode, revealing oxygen-free and atomically flat Mg films. Room temperature XPS measurements after vapor deposition of a (sub)monolayer of BMP-TFSI on the Mg film revealed the formation of a “contact layer” on Mg(0001), created by the reactive decomposition of the IL. In agreement with computationally determined core level binding energies of stable reaction products (dispersion corrected density functional theory calculations), we identified mainly inorganic MgF2-, MgO-, and MgS-like surface compounds, but also other more complex (Mg2+-free) F-, O-, and/or S-containing “TFSI-like” and carbon-containing adsorbed species. The deposition of higher IL amounts (up to 6 monolayers) results in the overgrowth of the direct “contact layer” by molecularly adsorbed BMP-TFSI. Heating of the adsorbate covered surface to around 470 K leads to desorption of multilayer BMP-TFSI and the partial desorption and transformation of adsorbed (Mg2+-free) “TFSI-like” decomposition products on the Mg substrate into MgF2-, MgO-, and MgS species or the respective adsorbed Fad, Oad, and Sad species.
Interaction of Mg with the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide—An experimental and computational model study of the electrode–electrolyte interface in post-lithium batteries
Florian Buchner, Katrin Forster-Tonigold, Tim Bolter, Alexander Rampf, Jens Klein, Axel Groß, R. Jürgen Behm; Interaction of Mg with the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide—An experimental and computational model study of the electrode–electrolyte interface in post-lithium batteries. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1 March 2022; 40 (2): 023204. https://doi.org/10.1116/6.0001658
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