Sample preparation and mounting are important aspects of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. New users do not know many techniques that are familiar to analysts with years of experience, and these observations and “tricks of the trade” are typically not published. This article is intended to convey the experience of the authors in this field who have creatively analyzed a wide range of samples. Samples can include solids, powders, fibers, porous solids, and even liquids. This information is also important to anyone submitting samples for analysis, since the preparation of the sample may influence the usefulness of the data collected. These techniques are also applicable to other surface analysis methods.

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