(0001) c-plane, (11-20) a-plane, and m-plane (10-10) ZnO bulk crystals were implanted with 400-keV Gd+ ions using fluences of 5 × 1014, 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1015, and 5 × 1015 cm−2. Structural changes during the implantation and subsequent annealing were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode (RBS-C); the angular dependence of the backscattered ions (angular scans) in c-, a-, and m-plane ZnO was realized to get insight into structural modification and dopant position in various crystallographic orientations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) with mapping in reciprocal space was also used for introduced defect identification. Defect-accumulation depth profiles exhibited differences for c-, a-, and m-plane ZnO, with the a-plane showing significantly lower accumulated disorder in the deeper layer in Zn-sublattice, accompanied by the preservation of ion channeling phenomena in a-plane ZnO. Enlargement of the main lattice parameter was evidenced, after the implantation, in all orientations. The highest was evidenced in a-plane ZnO. The local compressive deformation was seen with XRD analysis in polar (c-plane) ZnO, and the tensile deformation was observed in nonpolar ZnO (a-plane and m-plane orientations) being in agreement with RBS-C results. Raman spectroscopy showed distinct structural modification in various ZnO orientations simultaneously with identification of the disordered structure in O-sublattice. Nonpolar ZnO showed a significant increase in disorder in O-sublattice exhibited by E2(high) disappearance and enhancement of A1(LO) and E1(LO) phonons connected partially to oxygen vibrational modes. The lowering of the E2(low) phonon mode and shift to the lower wavenumbers was observed in c-plane ZnO connected to Zn-sublattice disordering. Such observations are in agreement with He ion channeling, showing channeling effect preservation with only slight Gd dopant position modification in a-plane ZnO and the more progressive diminishing of channels with subsequent Gd movement to random position with the growing ion fluence and after the annealing in c-plane and m-plane ZnO.
Distinct defect appearance in Gd implanted polar and nonpolar ZnO surfaces in connection to ion channeling effect
Adéla Jagerová, Petr Malinský, Romana Mikšová, Pavla Nekvindová, Jakub Cajzl, Shavkat Akhmadaliev, Václav Holý, Anna Macková; Distinct defect appearance in Gd implanted polar and nonpolar ZnO surfaces in connection to ion channeling effect. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1 November 2019; 37 (6): 061406. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.5125320
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