The authors investigate the fluence and doping dependence of the surface photovoltage (SPV) shifts at SiO2/Si(001) interfaces by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Charge carriers are excited by pumping photon energies of hνpump=1.2 and 2.4 eV and probed by high-order harmonics of hνprobe=22.6 eV at 0.2 and 0.7 MHz repetition rates. The authors observe SPV shifts of the nonbonding O2p state by 240 meV for SiO2/p-Si and by 140 meV for SiO2/n-Si upon pumping with hνpump=1.2 eV, and their decay rate is estimated from time-resolved measurements. Moreover, the authors observe a striking pumping fluence dependence of SPV at these interfaces, which indicates charge carrier generation by both linear and nonlinear optical excitations.

1.
A. H.
Edwards
,
Phys. Rev. B
36
,
9638
(
1987
).
2.
J. P.
Campbell
and
P. M.
Lenahan
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
80
,
1945
(
2002
).
3.
C. R.
Helms
and
B. E.
Deal
, The Physics and Chemistry of SiO2 and the Si-SiO2 Interface (
Plenum
,
New York
,
1988
).
4.
E.
Mehes
and
C. H.
Patterson
,
Phys. Rev. Mater.
1
,
044602
(
2017
).
5.
T.
Tsuchiya
and
Y.
Ono
,
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.
54
,
04DC01
(
2015
).
6.
T.
Wang
,
N.
Venkatram
,
J.
Gosciniak
,
Y.
Cui
,
G.
Qian
,
W.
Ji
, and
D. T. H.
Tan
,
Opt. Express
21
,
32192
(
2013
).
7.
J. G.
Mihaychuk
,
N.
Shamir
, and
H. M.
van Driel
,
Phys. Rev. B
59
,
2164
(
1999
).
8.
P.
Siffalovic
,
M.
Drescher
, and
U.
Heinzmann
,
Europhys. Lett.
60
,
924
(
2002
).
9.
K.
Oguri
,
K.
Kato
,
T.
Nishikawa
,
H.
Gotoh
,
K.
Tateno
,
T.
Sogawa
, and
H.
Nakano
,
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.
51
,
072401
(
2012
).
10.
K.
Oguri
,
T.
Tsunoi
,
K.
Kato
,
H.
Nakano
,
T.
Nishikawa
,
K.
Tateno
,
T.
Sogawa
, and
H.
Gotoh
,
Appl. Phys. Express
8
,
022401
(
2015
).
11.
A.
Melzer
,
D.
Kampa
,
J.
Wang
, and
T.
Fauster
,
Phys. Rev. B
80
,
205424
(
2009
).
12.
M.
Bauer
,
J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.
38
,
R253
(
2005
).
13.
S.
Hellmann
et al.,
Nat. Commun.
3
,
1069
(
2012
).
14.
C. W.
Nicholson
,
A.
Lücke
,
W. G.
Schmidt
,
M.
Puppin
,
L.
Rettig
,
R.
Ernstorfer
, and
M.
Wolf
,
Science
362
,
821
(
2018
).
15.
J. V.
Barth
,
G.
Costantini
, and
K.
Kern
,
Nature
437
,
671
(
2005
).
16.
B. M.
Marsh
,
M. E.
Vaida
,
S. K.
Cushing
,
B. R.
Lamoureux
, and
S. R.
Leone
,
J. Phys. Chem. C
121
,
21904
(
2017
).
17.
B. F.
Spencer
et al.,
Faraday Discuss.
171
,
275
(
2014
).
18.
S.
Grafström
,
J. Appl. Phys.
91
,
1717
(
2002
).
19.
M.
Moreno
,
M.
Alonso
,
J. L.
Sacedon
,
M.
Höricke
,
R.
Hey
,
K.
Horn
, and
K. H.
Ploog
,
Phys. Rev. B
61
,
16060
(
2000
).
20.
M. H.
Hecht
,
Phys. Rev. B
43
,
12102
(
1991
).
21.
T.
Watanabe
,
M.
Hori
,
T.
Tsuchiya
,
A.
Fujiwara
, and
Y.
Ono
,
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.
56
,
011303
(
2017
).
22.
M.
Marsi
et al.,
J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.
94
,
149
(
1998
).
23.
C.
Bandis
and
B. B.
Pate
,
Surf. Sci.
345
,
L23
(
1996
).
24.
T. J.
Šarapatka
,
Surf. Sci.
275
,
443
(
1992
).
25.
W.
Widdra
et al.,
Surf. Sci.
543
,
87
(
2003
).
26.
R.
Yukawa
,
S.
Yamamoto
,
K.
Akikubo
,
K.
Takeuchi
,
K.
Ozawa
,
H.
Kumigashira
, and
I.
Matsuda
,
Adv. Mater. Interfaces
3
,
1600527
(
2016
).
27.
S.
Tanaka
,
J. Electron. Spectros. Relat. Phenomena
185
,
152
(
2012
).
28.
C.-T.
Chiang
,
A.
Blättermann
,
M.
Huth
,
J.
Kirschner
, and
W.
Widdra
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
101
,
071116
(
2012
).
29.
C.-T.
Chiang
,
M.
Huth
,
A.
Trützschler
,
M.
Kiel
,
F.
Schumann
,
J.
Kirschner
, and
W.
Widdra
,
New J. Phys.
17
,
013035
(
2015
).
30.
C.-T.
Chiang
, Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry, edited by K. Wandelt (Elsevier, Oxford, 2018), pp. 28–38.
31.
T.
Tabata
,
T.
Aruga
, and
Y.
Murata
,
Surf. Sci.
179
,
L63
(
1987
).
32.
T.-W.
Pi
,
J.-F.
Wen
,
C.-P.
Ouyang
,
R.-T.
Wu
, and
G.
Wertheim
,
Surf. Sci.
478
,
L333
(
2001
).
33.
M. A.
Green
,
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
92
,
1305
(
2008
).
34.
F. G.
Bell
and
L.
Ley
,
Phys. Rev. B
37
,
8383
(
1988
).
35.
M.
Copuroglu
,
H.
Sezen
,
R. L.
Opila
, and
S.
Suzer
,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
5
,
5875
(
2013
).
36.
D.
Bröcker
,
T.
Gießel
, and
W.
Widdra
,
Chem. Phys.
299
,
247
(
2004
).
37.
J. P.
Long
,
H. R.
Sadeghi
,
J. C.
Rife
, and
M. N.
Kabler
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
64
,
1158
(
1990
).
38.
The corresponding power-law will be discussed in detail in Sec. IV B.
39.
S. M.
Sze
and
K. K.
Ng
,
Physics of Semiconductor Devices
(
Wiley
,
New York
,
2006
).
40.
M. H.
Hecht
,
Phys. Rev. B
41
,
7918
(
1990
).
41.
R. J.
Hamers
and
D. G.
Cahill
,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B
9
,
514
(
1991
).
42.
W.
Shockley
and
W. T.
Read
,
Phys. Rev.
87
,
835
(
1952
).
43.
M. A.
Kroon
and
R. A. C. M. M.
van Swaaij
,
J. Appl. Phys.
90
,
994
(
2001
).
44.
A.
Shavorskiy
et al.,
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
85
,
093102
(
2014
).
45.
J. C.
Inkson
,
J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.
14
,
1093
(
1981
).
46.
D. M.
Eagles
,
J. Phys. Chem. Solids
16
,
76
(
1960
).
You do not currently have access to this content.