Argon ion kinetic energy spectra at different discharge voltages (between 480 and 600 V) of a commercial cold cathode ion source IQP10/63 are reported. The high kinetic energy cut-off depends on the discharge voltage and the corresponding plasma potential due to excess positive charges which is found to be about 136 V. Exposure of single layer hexagonal boron nitride on rhodium to the beam of the ion source leads to the formation of nanotents, i.e., stable atomic protrusions. A positive bias voltage is applied to the target sample to block the positive ions produced by the ion source. However, application of a positive bias potential (800 eV), which is higher than the kinetic energy cut-off, still allows the formation of nanotents and its observation with scanning tunneling microscopy. This indicates that the ion source also produces neutral atoms with kinetic energies higher than the penetration threshold across a single layer of hexagonal boron nitride.
Characterization of a cold cathode Penning ion source for the implantation of noble gases beneath 2D monolayers on metals: Ions and neutrals
Huanyao Cun, Annina Spescha, Adrian Schuler, Matthias Hengsberger, Jürg Osterwalder, Thomas Greber; Characterization of a cold cathode Penning ion source for the implantation of noble gases beneath 2D monolayers on metals: Ions and neutrals. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1 March 2016; 34 (2): 020602. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.4939507
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