Titanium dioxide films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a titanium precursor and water, ozone, or oxygen plasma as coreactants. Low temperatures (80–120 °C) were used to grow moisture barrier TiO2 films on polyethylene naphthalate. The maximum growth per cycle for water, ozone, and oxygen plasma processes were 0.33, 0.12, and 0.56 Å/cycle, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry was used to evaluate the chemical composition of the layers and the origin of the carbon contamination was studied by deconvoluting carbon C1s peaks. In plasma-assisted ALD, the film properties were dependent on the energy dose supplied by the plasma. TiO2 films were also successfully deposited by using a spatial ALD (SALD) system based on the results from the temporal ALD. Similar properties were measured compared to the temporal ALD deposited TiO2, but the deposition time could be reduced using SALD. The TiO2 films deposited by plasma-assisted ALD showed better moisture barrier properties than the layers deposited by thermal processes. Water vapor transmission rate values lower than 5 × 10−4 g day−1 m−2 (38 °C and 90% RH) was measured for 20 nm of TiO2 film deposited by plasma-assisted ALD.
Low temperature temporal and spatial atomic layer deposition of TiO2 films
Morteza Aghaee, Philipp S. Maydannik, Petri Johansson, Jurkka Kuusipalo, Mariadriana Creatore, Tomáš Homola, David C. Cameron; Low temperature temporal and spatial atomic layer deposition of TiO2 films. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1 July 2015; 33 (4): 041512. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.4922588
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