The authors describe how changes in shutter state (open/closed) affect sputter plasma conditions and stability of the deposition rate of Ti and TiO2 films. The films were grown by high power impulse magnetron sputtering in pure Ar and in Ar/O2 mixture from a metallic Ti target. The shutter state was found to have an effect on the pulse waveform for both pure Ar and reactive sputtering of Ti also affecting stability of TiO2 deposition rate. When the shutter opened, the shape of pulse current changed from rectangular to peak-plateau and pulse energy decreased. The authors attribute it to the change in plasma impedance and gas rarefaction originating in geometry change in front of the magnetron. TiO2 deposition rate was initially found to be high, 1.45 Å/s, and then dropped by ∼40% during the first 5 min, while for Ti the change was less obvious. Instability of deposition rate poses significant challenge for growing multilayer heterostructures. In this work, the authors suggest a way to overcome this by monitoring the integrated average energy involved in the deposition process. It is possible to calibrate and control the film thickness by monitoring the integrated pulse energy and end growth when desired integrated pulse energy level has been reached.
Method to control deposition rate instabilities—High power impulse magnetron sputtering deposition of TiO2
Anna Kossoy, Rögnvaldur L. Magnusson, Tryggvi K. Tryggvason, Kristjan Leosson, Sveinn Olafsson; Method to control deposition rate instabilities—High power impulse magnetron sputtering deposition of TiO2. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1 March 2015; 33 (2): 021514. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.4905737
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